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Full text of "New York City during the American Revolution : being a collection of original papers (now first published) from the manuscripts in the possession of the Mercantile Library Association, of New York City"

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(now first published) 
from the manuscripts in the possession of 






Appointed by the Board of Direction of the Mercantile Library 



For 1860-61. 


For 1861-62. 


Entered according to Aft of Congrefs, in the year 1861, by Charles F. Allen, Presi- 
dent, for the Mercantile Library Affociation of the City of New York, in the Clerk's 
Office of the Diftrift Court of the United States for the Southern Diftrift of New York. 



The accompanying work, which bears for its title "New 
York City during the American Revolution," may be con- 
fidered in fome degree as a free-will offering on the part 
of the Mercantile Library Aifociation to thofe of our 
Members and Citizens who, by their contributions, have 
fecured to the Library the poffeffion of thole Hiitorical 
Manufcripts and Documents known as the Tomltnfon Col- 

It was confidered fitting that thofe whofe liberality Had 
been thus difplayed toward us, fhould themfelves be made 
partakers of the benefits they had conferred, and no more 
appropriate way prefented itfelf to thofe who had the 
matter in charge than publilliing a few of the documents 
themfelves and putting them in a convenient form for pref- 


For this purpoi'e, i'uch of the papers have been felefted 
as pertained almoft exclufively to the city of New York, 
and by means of them, a feries of panoramic views are 
given of the city, from the Stamp Act Riot in 1765, to 
the Evacuation by the Britifli in 1783. 

During the former part of this time — until September, 
1776 — the city was the fcene of no ordinary excitement. 
Patriots and loyalists dwelt here together, but the lines 
which diftinguiihed them were fait being drawn. The 
Britifli foldiers and the Sons of Liberty were mutually 
exafperating each other, and their feelings could not be 
wholly, kept in check. It was not then, indeed, that the 
itruggle againft foreign ufurpation firlt commenced in this 
city. It had been going on for well nigh a century. But 
it was now taking that determined form which was to 
lead to victory and independence. 

During the laft feven years of the above period, the 
city was in the occupancy of the Britifli army. The 
glimpfe that we get of it, at this time, imperfect though 
it be, has a peculiar interelt. Would that fome truthful 
record of all that tranfpired here during thefe eventful 
years might be found and given to the public. 


There remains now but to thank thole who have 
contributed in any manner to the intereft ol the volume. 
To Mr. Henry B. Dawlbn, the Hiftorian, is elpecial credit 
due for the valuable Introductory Chapter, which embodies 
a description of the moft important localities of New 
York - city and illand at the time the volume com- 
mences ; and to the lame gentleman is the reader in- 
debted for, with few exceptions, the hiftorical notes 
which accompany the Several papers. 

Interefting biographical (ketches have been contributed 
by John L. Curtenius, ESq., of Buffalo, S. S. Purple, 
M. D., of New York, and Henry T. Drowne, Efq., 
alfo of this city. To Mr. Drowne we are further in- 
debted for copies of Several interefting letters written 
from the city by his grandfather, Dr. Solomon Drowne, 
of Rhode Illand, contributed with the molt unaffected 
modefty and generality. 

To D. T. Valentine, Efq., the invaluable clerk of our 
Common Council, we are under obligations for the ufe 
of the map engraved for one of the annual illues of 
his "Manual." 

The hiftorical ftudent will appreciate the fidelity with 


which the original Documents have been followed by 
the Printer, as regards the fpelling, punctuation, and 
even the manifeft errors, which are retained; while the 
general reader will catch the fpirit of the times all 
the more faithfully from the very want of artificial 
elegance, which theie unpretending letters and narratives 

Mercantile Library, Clinton Hall, 
June 20, 1861. 

Note. — The " Tomlinfon Collection," from which the materials for this 
volume have been drawn, confifts of feveral hundred hiftorical papers relat- 
ing chiefly to the American Revolution and events immediately connected 
with it. Thefe documents, comprifing public and private correfpondence, 
army rolls, orderly books, and other matter of like nature, with appropriate 
illuftrations, have been brought together, during feveral years of refearch, by 
Mr. Abraham Tomlinfon of this city, with the defign of having them ulti- 
mately placed in fome public inftitution. 

The whole collection was offered to the Mercantile Library Aflbciation on 
luch terms that it was thought defirable to fecure it for the inflection and 
perufal of its members ; and this remit has been accomplished through the 
liberality of friends of the Aflbciation. It is propofed, when opportunity 
favors, to have the moft interefting portions of the collection arranged in fuch 
a manner as that they can be eafily feen and ftudied. 

( () N I I N I 





\ I • : the D 4 I_ 49 


I ..... 5°~5 2 


Seizui I ■ B 

immediat ... 


I tcr T. C . ' \ . lr., arul S 

mon Drowne, M. I)., ..... 

\l u YORK 

•m Letter^ written from that City during the ^ 
75 and 1 - . . . -107 




A Letter written by General George Clinton, . . 108—116 


AddrefTes to Lord and General Howe, and to Sir William 

Tryon — with the Names of nearly One Thoufand Signers, 117-140 


Letters from Lieutenant-Colonel Smith, from New York City, 

in 1783, ....... 141-147 

Account of the Occupation of New York City, by the Brit- 

ifh, from 1776 to 1783, .... 148-176 

Reafons for not Attacking Wafhington while encamped near 

King's Bridge, in July and Auguft, 1781, . . 177-184 


I i . , at all times, an intcreiVing employment to turn over the ann.i 
any community, or to liitcn to the limple nar: in "the olden 

time," ;b it falls from th< ; and in proportion 

nmunitv may I 1 in the flirri: 

, will that empl 'vment b. .re and inftruclion. 

This general n — at all times true — is when the 

annals of the cit] rk are the lideration; 

and there thin the < i ir country 

may turn with crcatcr i 
whofi ircn may more 

honefl and commendable pride, than on 

It is, indeed, true that the citii ns of N ever been peculiarly 

a mixed people; that their taftes and their habits have ever tended toward 

the buftling fcei I '.ther than to the more quid 

retreats of literature and the fine ar »fe ol 

her own ions ha \ i rultcd the unwritten hiftory ol her 

patriotifm and her entcrprifc, the preparation ol her literature, and the edu- 

u of her children ; and that, looking at the prei'ent and the future, rather 

than at the pall. vcr prcflcd onward and upward toward that proud 

n which flic will l'omc day occupy, as the emporium of the world. 

It is equally true, however, that the feveral nationalities and conditions 

of life which arc represented in the counting-rooms, the workfhops, and the 



dwellings in New York — elements which, in themfelves, are often difcordant 
and antagonistic — through the operations of an overruling Providence, have 
become the bafis of her immenfe influence and power. By the combination 
of thefe feveral elements, the peculiar features of all have been infenflbly 
neutralized ; while a frefhnefs, and elafticity, and ftrength of character, have 
been imparted to the newly-formed community, which had not been poflefTed 
by any of the elements from which it has been produced. In this manner 
the undue circumfpeftion of her Dutch and Englifh and German elements, 
and the preponderating vivacity of her French and Irifh elements, have 
mutually exercifed a beneficial influence ; while the tad! and the executive 
abilities of the emigrants from New England and Scotland, who have fought 
homes among her people, have added new ftrength to her enterprife, and 
increafed intelligence to her tradefmen and her mechanics. 

It is alio true that while the demands of trade have been reflected more, 
in New York, than the claims of literature and the arts, it is not true that 
the latter have been entirely difregarded by the merchants and the tradefmen 
of that city. The numerous valuable private libraries which grace even the 
more humble dwellings, as well as thofe of the wealthier citizens, and the 
well-fuftained public collections — many of them defigned peculiarly for dif- 
tincl: claffes of the people — all furnifh evidence that, in her leifure, at leaft, 
New York feeks the companionfhip of thofe, of every age and nation, who 
have contributed to the wifdom of the prefent generation ; and that fhe 
feeks at their hands a portion, at leaft, of that knowledge which they are 
ever ready to impart. 

Nor is it lefs true, becaufe thofe who have written our hiftories and fchool- 
books have failed to notice her, that New York has a hifiory, as glorious in 
every refpecl — and, in many inftances, far more fo — as is that of any other 
community in this or any other country. Rhode Ifland and Maryland, 
jullly proud of their colonial liberality, have claimed honor for the liberty 
of confaence which was cherifhed under their authority ; yet in New York, 
alfo, under the laws of her fatherland, the fame freedom had prevailed from 
the beginning; and the "Sectaries" of Maflachuietts, banifhed by the courts 


of that colony, and no longer late even in Rhode Illand, and the perfecuted 
and forrow-ftricken Hrael rtugal, driven from city to citj and 

country to country, found permanent rcitiiu- ntinued pi 

tion, and unrcflraincd ft \y within the bounds of her junfdi 

;, the merchanl FN . \ rk defied tl 
the Government, and demand, te in the adminiltxa: 

the public affairs; and tt. 

until the final fcpar.r untry. In her 

acquittal of John Pel / r, in 1-4;, (he eftabliihed and maintained 
J"J ! ikI > through that powerful inftrum •mributcd 

more to tl if the American Revolution, than did an 

prior tf> the battle at ( In .in her pi : the 

crew of the Sam/im, and in July, 1704, in her reli fi/hermen, 

(he declared h< 

'"• n,an . v ■ r colony, followed her 

example. In October, 1764, 

. and nine \ 

any Heps to imitate her example. althoUj , med 

tnc """" r mated "this great invention," and hiftorians, even 

"i New Vork, I nded their prei W 

t,lc c " 1 " 111 .- foprem- 

: that body, and the dutj 
arliament, though erroneous, till repea :" \ 
that / ,, / M 

Parliament, ,m act that (he v. . c and abh.. r " the 

r which might inflict it; am:. ,„/,/ 

■ D better I fome other power." 

When the ■ ,l lt . [^ tnc C( ,] limil , 

tiontoif; her merchant- \ nt ■ an j f 

among the faithful, they were tli? moft faithful in the execution of its pro- 
visions, / d which was fhed in defence of the rights of Amei 
(lowed from the veins of het inhabitants, on the Golden Hill, fanuary 1-', 



1770, two months before "the MafTacre" in King ftreet, Bofton, and five 
years and three months before the affair at Lexington. She, alfo, as well as 
Bofton and Annapolis, had a tea-party ; and fhe, as well as they, feafoned 
the waters of her harbor with the taxed tea which the cupidity of the Eaft 
India Company and the infolence of the Government had attempted to 
thruft into her midft — differing from Bofton only in doing fearleffly, in 
broad daylight, and without difguifes, what the latter had done with timid- 
ity, in the darknefs of night, and in the guife of "Mohawks." And, laftly, 
when hoftilities had been commenced, as will be feen in the following pages, 
fhe did not hefitate to take a place in the very front rank of the oppofition, 
or to prove, by the daring of her fons, her title to that pofition, by over- 
turning the King's authority in that city, and by eftablifhing in its ftead a 
"Committee of One Hundred" of her citizens, long before any fimilar ftep 
was taken by any other community in the country. 

From thefe circumftances — felected from among a multitude of others — 
may be judged whether or not New York has a hiftory which is worthy of 
preiervation ; and whether or not the hiftorians and the makers of fchool- 
books who have difregarded her patriotifm, and left it unnoticed, have either 
been true to their country, to themfelves, or to the fidelity of hiftory. At the 
fame time, and from the fame circumftances, alfo, let it be determined what 
degree of intereft it is which clufters around the contents of this volume, 
comprifing exa£t copies of papers which have never before been publifhed, 
and which relate entirely to the ftirring events of the American Revolu- 
tion in New York, or to thofe of the War of the Revolution through 
which the independence of the United States was finally eftablifhed. 

In the earlier part of the period referred to, as will be feen by reference 
to the map which accompanies the volume, New York was but a village, in 
extent, when compared with the populous and extended emporium which 
now ftretches its boundaries to the fartheft limits of the ifland on which it 
ftands. The fame "Broad Way" it is true, which then marked the courfe 
of the " back-bone of the ifland," as far north as where Duane ftreet now 
crofTes it, is ftill, as it was at that dav, the pride of our citizens, their favorite 


promenade, and the great centre of their "(hopping" interefts, " / 

and the graveyards of Trinity and St. Paul's, the 
winding and narrow in the lower part of the citv, manv of 

them bearing new name?, and all of them diverted of the peculiarities which 
they then poflefled, and " tht < nified with the name, al- 

though but very few of the ao 

bygone d.i as which 1 . .. eve „ 

a connecting link behind. 

• v '• vet extremity of the bland ipied 

Wltn Fort G the latter embracing three baftions, with 

e&ing curl oding from Whitehall flip on the fouth-eaft, to the 

line of the prefent Battery place on the north-weft. 

The fort, a rectangular done work, ftrengthened with baftions at 

an artificial mound, . w hich had 

been thrown up " at in ei , Iltc j 

"the Bowling Green," w which had 

Deen ,,ir " u v. Q the enclofure 

ol the fort were the I G ., which would 

mmodate two hundred men, and two powder magazine ter of 

which, from their dampncl's, were entirely ufelefi; and ;': mter- 

k.irp on its eaftern and fouthern G i eaftward is Whiteha 

and louthu q 

The armaments of the tort, the raveling, and the Ik the 

water line, were mounted and althou one hun- 

dred and twenty pi< were on the ramparts, a dillinguifhed 

military engineer of that period has informed US that it " Teems to have been 
intended for profit and form rather thai nee, it being cntirc!\ 

I hrc in reverie and enfilade;" and that although "it earn- 
rclpcothill appearance with it (at a diltancc)," the defences on the north- 
ern trout were, "of themfelves, but bad, this front being command 1 I 
piece of ground equal to it at the end of B . ■ Green, its original 


parade, and formerly in the jurifdiction of the fort. This height is 530 feet 
from it, and where its principal ftreet commences called the Broadway." 

Befide the barracks which were within the fort, another, fometimes ufed 
for a military hofpital, occupied the fouth-eaftern part of the prefent Bat- 
tery, extending weftward from Whitehall ftreet along the prefent foutherly 
line of State ftreet ; while a third, in which were polled the troops who 
haraffed the people fo much at the period under confideration, occupied the 
northern part of " the Common," on the fouthern line of the Chambers 
ftreet of our day. 

Before noticing other portions of the city, as they appeared at that early 
day, it may be proper to remark, that the ferry to Staten Ifland occupied the 
fite, at the foot of Whitehall ftreet, which it ftill retains ; and that the eaft- 
ern part of the Battery, then and many years afterward, was occupied with 
a pool of water, into which the tide flowed through Whitehall flip. 

A ftranger in New York, in 1767, would have feen little to admire in the 
plan — or, rather, in the entire abfence of any plan — on which the city had 
been built ; and the lower portions of it ftill retain much of that early pecu- 
liarity. The unfeemly juxtapofition of fafhionable private refidences, mer- 
chants' ftores, lawyers' offices, and mechanics' workfhops — as we would 
confider it — alfo muft have formed a curious feature, even in its principal 
ftreets ; but, in this refpect, if not in the former, the modern city has effected 
a radical and permanent change. 

Pafling from the gate of Fort George, and leaving the Provincial Secre- 
tary's office on his right — on the weftern corner of the Bowling Green and 
Whitehall ftreet — the ftroller around town of that day had "the Broad Way," 
with its well-fhaded fldewalks, before him, and all the bufy fcenes which, 
from the earlieft days, have rendered it famous in the annals of New York. 

Next to the glacis of the fort, on the weftern fide of the ftreet, flood the 
elegant manfion of Captain Kennedy, of the Royal Navy — a building which, 
for architectural pretenfions, was rivalled only by the refidence of Mr. Wal- 
ton, in Queen ftreet, now Franklin fquare. Like the great city of which it 
ftill forms a part, it has furvived the fhock of revolutions, the demands of 

IN 1 ROIH CI ION. , - 

1 5 

commerce, and the fcnfelefs thirft for change; and, with two ltories added t<> 

its height, it is now knowi ' No. l Broa Iway. 

■ fining the refidence I n Kennedy was another, then owned by 

him, and fubfequcntly purchafed and occupied by t ; 

a l"i. iitlcman of the lame name who had been a member of the 

Provincial Council — brothcr-ii i Johnjohnfon, and brothci 

antry in the fervice of the King, at the 

I the manv cl. . 

which have been made in Broadway; and, at the prefent time, is occupied 


juit'n . the father I 

ingfton, and one of the m 

ments whi \- at I 

been altered in fom . this build 


The fourth houfe in t). e way, w 

the Van Courtlandl I mofl influential f.uni 

the colony; which has given way t.. a modern-built refidence, 
pied : 

\ , kept by G 

cradli which even the pal I I 

was rocked in the carlic!- In the lar. -i the 

•hat building, the belles and beaux frequently met 

and amufed themfelvea in " afli and lcct- 

ure> and exhi: : liferent k;: n the fame citahlifli- 

ment B u her and more important aflemblagea than thoft 
of pleafure had met within the lar. 

* Till- proper- -.: UJ February, '.' 2000 Iter! 

- i -. ■ : it, and r< - 

and, about t* . — a lingular inftance of the upward 

tendency of trade dur'm.; the pafi 



name famous for all time to come. Two years before [October 31, 1765), 
"upwards of two hundred principal merchants" of thofe who "traded to 
Great Britain" had met in council in that room, and had there declared that 
they would import no more goods from Great Britain while the Stamp Aft 
remained on the ftatute-books. They had alfo, at the fame time, appointed 
a " Committee of Correfpondence," for the purpofe of effecting a union of 
the feveral colonies — until that time acting without concert in their oppofi- 
tion to the Government — and thus having there committed the firft overt 
act of rebellion ; and having, at the fame time, laid the foundation of the 
union of thirteen feparate and difcordant peoples in that room, the merchants 
of New York had inaugurated the City Arms as the head-quarters of the 
American Revolution. 

The old building, thus rendered famous in the hiftory of America— for 
many years known as " The Atlantic Garden" — has alfo remained, with but 
few alterations, until the paft hammer (i860), when it gave way to the de- 
mands of commerce, having been torn down to make room for a freight-depot 
for the Hudfon River Railroad Company. 

Meanwhile, on the oppofite fide of " the Broad Way," was the well-known 
" Bowling Green," fkirted by a double row of trees which extended up the 
flope of the ftreet nearly as far as Beaver lane (Morris Jireet). The fragments 
of a broken-down fence which appeared, here and there, around the Green, 
even at that time, bore filent teftimony to the pafTer-by, of the audacity of 
the citizens, in their oppofition to the Stamp Aft of 1765 ; and revealed the 
fource from whence were drawn fome of the materials for the bonfire in which 
alfo were confumed the Lieutenant Governor's effigy, as well as his fleighs, 
carriage, and harnefTes, in the celebrated "Stamp-Aft Riot" of November 
1, 1765. 

In the immediate vicinity of "the Bowling Green," in 1767, were alfo 
eftablifhed other perfons who were prominent in the mercantile, or mechan- 
ical, or focial circles of New York. On the weftern fide of the ftreet were 
George Croffle and Robert Furfyth, " from Ireland," whofe blackfmith lhop, 
and weekly advertifements — the latter more in keeping with the practice of 


thc prcicnc day — were equally prominent. C. . with his 

joiner's limp, was an occupant of the wcitcrn fide of the Bi 

Mrs. Steele, in her " kine's Arms Tavern," which fhc had ren 
from the lower end of Broad itrcct, four years before. On the ealtcrn fide 
of the Itrcct was the ^*<>rk Tavern; an : m Beaver Itrcct, alio 

1 . ,was the refidence S i I [ward Pickering, Bart. 
nc and the Lutheran Church, in 
generally i ;th private dw< 1 the promenad 

have been informed, met nothing of particular moment. "The alley which 
led to the oyfter par | 

as it was generally called, Flatten-Barrack Itrcct i. I, on his 

right, — as they fl 

fomc dill the upper fide 

I i irden ftreei (j 
llrccts, at the period of which we n the ancient church-cdif. 

the " ' tch Church. 1 ire, with three i 

the call : c front it had a f.]u.irc fuch large 

dimenfions, that the were held in it, above the cntr 

ancient mccting-houic remained until \-<o~, when it was taken down 

deltrovcd, in " the 
greai tire " of December, 

On the 

name), ftood ti i ran ( irch, with 

rear — toward the North Rivei which had been 

cltablilhcd and loitered, throu] the Veftl 

Trinity Church. Oppofite the Lutheran Church, on the caltcm fide of the 
: Way, ftood the (chool-houic of W. Elphinfl I the molt 

nplifhed teachers, v, in the 

Trinity Church, ii. upied the fame fitC— furrounded by the me- 

morials ol the departed — as that on which llic now Itat ited from 

the fidewalk by a painted picket-fence, the modefl Itructurc — one hundred 
and forty-eight tect long by feventy-two in breadth — prcfentcd its femicircu- 


lar chancel to the ftreet ; while, at its zvejierii extremity, its fimple pinnacled 
tower and fteeple rofe one hundred and feventy-five feet into the air. With- 
in, this ancient edifice was ornamented beyond any other place of public 
worfhip in the city. The head of the chancel was adorned with an altar- 
piece ; and oppofite to it, at the other end of the building, was the organ. 
The tops of the pillars which fupported the galleries were decked with the 
gilt bufts of angels, winged. From the ceiling were fufpended two glafs 
branches, and on the walls hung the arms of Governor Fletcher and fome 
others of its principal benefaclors. That building was deftroyed in the great 
fire of 1776; and the fubftantial ftruclure which was erected in its place, in 
its turn, has given way to the prevailing tafte for change— the magnificent 
edifice which is now the parifh-church of Old Trinity, reprefenting as truly 
the fpirit of the prefent age as the old building firft referred to did that of 
the merchants and the people of New York in 1767. 

Immediately in front of Trinity Church, in the olden time as it ftill does, 
Wall ftreet extended from the Broad Way to the Eaft River. In the earlier 
days of the colony (1653), "a wall," or ftockade, had been erected along 
the northern line of this ftreet, for the protection of the town — giving a name 
to the thoroughfare at its bafe ; and, although the neceflity for the preferva- 
tion of that wall no longer exifted, when Governor Dongan adminiftered the 
government, in 1688, portions of it ftill remained. On its northern fide, 
near the Broad Way, a little back from the ftreet, in 1767, flood the ftone, 
fteepled meeting-houfe of the Prefbyterian Church, in the pulpit of which 
the Rev. MefTrs. Treat and Rodgers were accuftomed to prefent the truths 
of the gofpel, as defined by the Weftminfter Aflembly ; and farther down — 
on the lower corner of NafTau ftreet, where the Cuftom-houfe now ftands 
— flood the City Hall, which ferved alfo as the Municipal and Colonial 
Court-houfe, the Debtors' and County Jail, and the Capitol of the Province. 
The former of thefe buildings — the meeting-houfe — after various changes and 
reconftruclions,* was removed, with great care, in 1844, and reappeared, in 

* Built in 1718; enlarged in 1768; rebuilt in 18 10; burned in the fall of 1834; and 
rebuilt immediately afterward. 

IN l R.OD1 U ION U) 

rmer ftyle, in W ; Itreet, Jerfey City, where it (till Rands, the 

mceting-houfc of the Firft Prclbyterian Church- fplendid (lores 

taking the place of the old meeting-houfe ; which, fubfequently, have alio 
given way to the demands for "offices," and a row of llill newer buil 
on the lame ground, now furnilh quarter tor a hofl of lawyers, bai 
brokers, inlurancc compai -he church, meanwhile, occupying a fine 

new edifice on the fifth avenue and W The 

latter of the two — the old City Hall — after having pafled through many 
changes (the molt important of' wlr • under the dire I ■ V 

[/Enfant, f>r the reception of the hrll Federal ( . under the neu l 

ftitution), was taken down in 

which alio, in their turn, have I he line building occupied by 

the Revenue Department of the Government, before referred 

Proceeding up the I ly, from tl I • j{ . the promenader, 

in 1 767, firfl pafled King [now Pine) 
Thames) ftreet on his left — the former eaftward from the Bi 

I if) River; the ic central thor- 

oughfare to the North River, which at that point then Bowed on the pi 
line of Greenwich llrcet. 

Immediately Tcct, on the well fi 

Bi . ! Way, in 1767, \- tavern" -fo celebrated in 

the earlier times. It had been erected in the d .1 > iry; and, 

fubfequently, it had been the manfion of Lieutenant Governor D I ey — 
its gray-ftone walls; its narrow, arched 

rear piazza, N nth River, and i fine lounging-place 

tor the officen of the garrifon and the fafhionables of the city; ai 
cupola, which afforded one of the finefl view "O New "\ rk," being 
among the molt prominent points of intcrell remembered by the fojourner 
in the city, at the period of which we write. 

I ttle-Queen 1 tr) ftreet was uezt pafled on the right, and Little 

1 1 ' ) ftreet on the left — then extending from the North River on the 

weft, as at this time, to Smith (tl II I ftrcel on the call. 



On the fouth fide of Little-Queen ftreet, between the Broad Way and 
NafTau ftreet, flood the " New-Scots' Church," in which the Rev. Doctor 
John Mafon at that time preached (a modeft edifice, fixty-five by fifty-four 
feet in extent, which had been erefted in 1758); and farther down the 
fame ftreet, in an open fpace which extended through to King (now Pine) 
ftreet, flood the ancient Huguenot Church, " Du St. Efprit," a ftone edifice, 
fifty by feventy-feven feet in extent, whofe quaint hipped roof, and circular- 
headed windows, and lofty tower, and crowded graveyard, have difappeared 
only within a few years. 

In the middle of the Broad Way, extending from the centre of the block 
between Little (now Cedar) ftreet and Crown (now Liberty) ftreet to that of 
the next block above, was the wooden fhed which had been dignified with the 
name of the Ofwego Market ; while, cluftered around it — as was, alfo, the 
cafe with the immediate vicinities of other market-houfes in the city — were 
the ftores of many of the merchants of that period. The hardware flores 
of Gilbert Forbes, the elder, and that of Peter T. Curtenius, on the latter 
of which was difplayed as a fign a large gilt " anvil and hammer," the dry- 
goods flore of Mr. Conover, the boarding-houfe of Mr. Kip, and the tavern 
kept by Mr. Miller, were among the principal eftablifhments which gave life 
to the fcene around this market-houfe ; although others were there whofe 
owners, with the edifices which they occupied, have pafTed away to be for- 
ever forgotten. 

Crown (nozv Liberty) ftreet extended from oppofite the centre of the 
Ofwego Market, on either hand, to the North River on the weft and to 
Maiden lane on the eaft — its prefent limits. On the weftern fide of the 
Broad Way, it is probable, Crown ftreet was occupied with refidences — 
Melanclon Smith, one of the moft prominent members of the bar, refiding 
in one of them. On the eaftern fide of the Broad Way Crown ftreet pre- 
fented feveral interefting features. On its northern fide, near the Broad 
Way, was the imall, unafTuming frame building which had been erecled in 
1706, as a meeting-houfe for the Friends' Society, fubfequently a hofpital 
during the Revolutionary War, and afterward the feed-ftore of Grant Thor- 

•Ml l HON 


burn, whole recollection* ftill intcrcll the readers of our new: 
frequent intcrva . Oppofite 1 

1 i \ I array — probably a • " which met in the 

neighboring meeting-houfe —where many of the w< . '.iter 

! received their education. \ w Murray' 

on the fouth-eall corner ol Nafli [beet, fl M Dui li Church, 

with its neat portico and painted pick. ad lubllantial tower and 

belfry, and furroundii that innovation bv Rc\. Dr. 

; —a fermon in the Englifli laiv ich, at the 

which we write, an I i-inued to 

call out, the bitterefl rvative K' I our 

lining the old chui Crown 

frowned on the pafler-by; and the . from 

id the mutterings of the 

riling ftorm, which were apparent to the i 


humanity, rhich have 

been madi 

church edi : ulpit 

and the vail poftal bufll 

and, having been pui 

earl) D 

•baker's hill," in fi : rcfidcmx I I . W ■, to 

Smith | n // . ia > llrcet, and thence .ere it Hill ter- 

minates, Crown llreet, in :' the moll important (beets in the 

it llill does, 
of the city which extended from river t>> river. 

Maiden lane and Courtlandt llreet, both well known to the citizens of the 
preient day, were next palled, the former extending to the Eafl River, the 
latter tii the North River. At tl -he former, in the wide 

which llill remain- -here, was "the Flv Market," while the Ham on the river 



near by were one of the termini of the Long Ifland ferry ; at the foot of the 
latter was the ferry to Powle's Hook (Jerjey City), which ftill retains the 
fame pofition. On the King's wharf, on the North River, between Court- 
landt and Partition {now Fulton) ftreets,were the arfenal and the royal ftore- 

Dey ftreet on the weft fide of the Broad Way, and John ftreet oppofite to 
Dey ftreet, are ftill well known; and in 1767, and for nearly three quarters 
of a century afterward, they afforded pleafant places of refidence for thofe 
who thronged the " bufinefs ftreets" of that portion of the city. 

On the eaftern fide of Smith (now William) ftreet, between John and 
Fair (now Fulton) ftreet, in 1767, flood a low, wooden building, in the low 
loft of which a failmaker had found a workfhop. In that humble edifice, 
which has remained until within a few years, on the fame fite, the Firft Bap- 
tift Church in this city found its firft public abiding place ; and, at the period 
of which we write (1767), the Firft Methodift Church were alfo enjoying 
the fame peculiar privilege under the fame roof. It is a fingular fact that 
the firft public refting place of two of the principal religious denominations 
in this city was in the fame unpretending fail-loft ; while it is not lefs re- 
markable that the old ftru6ture was permitted to remain to fo recent a date. 

Eaft from William ftreet, at the period referred to, the John ftreet of to- 
day was known as Golden Hill ftreet ; and there, and in the Fly (iww Pearl 
ftreet) between Burling flip and Fly Market (now Ma/den lane) the fpirited 
conteft known as " The Battle of Golden Hill," in which was fhed the 
firft blood of the American Revolution, was fought on the eighteenth of 
January, 1770, two months before the "maffacre" in King ftreet, Bofton, 
and five years and four months before the affair at Lexington. 

On the northern fide of John ftreet, near the Broad Way, in 1767, was 
the only theatre which was then in New York. It flood about fixty feet 
back from the ftreet, with which it was connected by a covered way extend- 
ing from the fidewalk to the door of the building. It was of wood, " an 
unfightly object," painted red; and on the feventh of December, 1767, the 
firft feafon in that edifice was opened with Farquahar's comedy of / ht 

I\ 1 ROl'l CI ION 


ind Garri . the celebrated "American Com- 

pany" taking the lcvcral characters.* 

* The foil ' the advertifement of" that performance, which appeared in 

, of the fame date, will intcrcl't feme of" m\ rea : 


mp Ah r 

At the Theatre, in John Street, thi- pref'ent evening, being the -th inftai , will 

be pi , call'd, the 

S I R A 1 A (. E M • 

Archer, b) Mr. Hallam, M . ^ -11, 

Aimw ell, by Mr. H D 

M.I -111 

I-'ki i m .n, b) Mr. Ma I .1 . 1 1 - m w 

I rd, by Mr. Mift Waii 

i . i , ■ . Mr. \\ G by Mrs. Wall, 


rhich will W added, j Dramatic Satire, call'd, 

I. I I H 
I •, by Mr. Dot ' . I •■- i 

Drunkei Man, by Mr. H M- I .1.11 

hm >%, bj Mr. Mr. 1 

I'im Gentlem .-.. I . Mr. W u i . Mr*. Riot, 
\1 . Mr. Mils Waimwri ;ht. 

\ /' . behind the 

TICK.] IS to be had at the Bible and Crown, in Hanover-Square, aid at M H 

at the Area of the Theatre, 

P I 'i in the /' ' »r. Ladies will 

p/eafe to fend their Servants to keep th-- I' 

BOXES \ PH Q M-i-i R i 


On the eaftern fide ot Naflau ftreet, near John, was the new meeting- 
houfe of the German Reformed Church, of which the Rev. J. M. Kern was 
the paftor. This old building has furvived until within a few years ; and 
many of thofe who were in bufmefs near John ftreet twenty years ago, will 
recoiled! the reftaurant ol Leonard Gofling, with its hundreds of difhes, 
which, at that time, found accommodation under its roof. 

That portion of Gold ftreet of our day which is between John ftreet and 
Maiden lane, was called "Rutgers' Hill" in 1767; and the large brewery 
of Anthony Rutgers, jr., at that time occupied the northern corner of that 
lane and Maiden lane, where the old eftablifhed houfe of Wolfe and Bifhop 
fo long did bufinefs. Eaftward from Golden Hill (now John) ftreet, our 
Gold ftreet, at that time (1767) was known as Vandercliff ftreet — after Dirck 
Vandercliff, whofe orchard, many years before, had occupied that locality ; 
and on its northern fide, between Golden Hili {now John) ftreet, and Fair 
(now Fit/ton) ftreet, flood the meeting-houfe of the Firft Baptift Church, of 
which the Rev. John Gano was the pallor. It was then a plain, ftone edifice, 
having been enlarged within three years after its firft erection, fifty-two by 
forty-two feet in extent; and it remained there until 1840, when it was torn 
down, the materials ferving as part of thofe which were taken for the con- 
ftruction of the new meeting-houfe in which the fame church ftill worfhips, 
at the corner of Broome and Elizabeth ftreets. 

Proceeding up the Broad Way from Dey ftreet, the promenader in 1767 
next crofled Partition (now Fulton) ftreet, extending weftward to the North 
River; or Fair (11IJ0 Fulton) ftreet, which extended eaftward only to the pref- 
ent Cliff ftreet. 

On the lower corner of Fair and Dutch ftreets flood the fmall frame 
meeting-houfe of the Moravian Church, which had been erecled in 1751 ; 
and on the north-eaflern corner of Fair and William ftreets Hood the more 
impofing ftone edifice of the North Dutch Church, which ftill retains its 
original appearance and is ftill uled by the fame body, as in 1767, and for 
the fame objecls. 

On the upper corner of Partition (now Fulton) ftreet and the Broad 


I St. Paul's Chapel, which had been dedicated in I 
her, 1766; and it Hill Hands there, i'urn.undcd : ffded grave-yard, 

one of the moft interefting of the tew landmarks which have been pre: 
in our city. 

St. Paul's Chapel, the : 
outlets from the city— branched off* from t) and the prefeni 

Park Row, and Chatham ftreet, and the I'. wery, indicate the general courfe 
which it t h the fuburbs of the city. 

\ Barclay facets, name rrinity Church ; 

R • , C hureh, and Chapel l! 

on the wcltern fide of tl with the ( 

egc at the foot of Robinfon I known 1 

utl/ e in 

this place. In 1767, :!. 

John and Martin Cregier ben . c number— although David Grim, 

who has rendered fo much fervice to the ftudent a] hiftory, 

penfed hi> ales and his good cheer at the fij I " in 

Chapel li- 
the callcrn lide of the I the lire. 

He Common— an open ground, which l known as "The 

Park." Even at that early day the • I been accuftomed to aflemble 

at that place to I hey had rendezvoused there on the 

eveningofthe thirty-firfl and on the followu 

preparatory to the 1 ' ;ic )amc p| acc 

on the follow I .-. . they had rcallcm: 

intention to Ib-rm the Fort in order to obtain pofleffion of the llamped 
papers which had been depofited within it. They had alto met in that 
place, on the fifteen- \ ember, 1765, to c.vprcf> their plcafurc when 

Sil H ' • • M re had declared that " he had nothing to do with the Han 
and in December of the fame year, when the firll llamped inltrumcnt ap- 
peared in NeM York, the proceffion which bore it proceeded to that 1 
and burned it with the effigies with which it had be i >•■ ,| 1C 



sixth of March, 1 766, alfo, they had affembled there to exprefs their indig- 
nation againit the conduct of Lieutenant-Governor Colden in fpiking the 
guns in the king's yard and on the Copfey Battery ; and in May of the fame 
year they had celebrated, at the fame place, with great fpirit, the repeal of 
the obnoxious act. On its weftern margin, nearly oppofite Murray ftreet, the 
celebrated Liberty-pole was erected in June, 1 766 ; and around its bafe (or 
thofe of the poles which, from time to time, had been erected in the place 
of thofe which the foldiers had deftroyed) clutter many of the molt romantic 
afTociations of that interefting era. On the nineteenth of March, 1767, the 
fourth pole had been erected on that fpot in honor of " the King, Pitt, 
and Liberty ;" and the colors had floated gaily from its fummit on the birth- 
day of the fovereign. 

Within the area of this Common, our prefent Park, on the very fpot on 
which now itands the City Hall, flood in 1767 the Poor-houfe, in the rear 
of which was a large garden ; while on the fpace between that and the 
Broad Way, trees were planted. Eaitward from the Poor-houfe flood the 
Frifon, a rettangular ftone building, furmounted with a cupola — a building 
which, during the iubfequent war of the Revolution, was occupied by Cun- 
ningham, the provoft marfhal, whofe cruelties to the " rebel" priloners who 
were placed under his charge are fo well known. That building, with mod- 
ern improvements both interior and exterior, ftill retains its place in the 
Park, and is known to all our citizens as "The Hall of Records." North 
from the Poor-houfe, near the fite which the row of buildings known as 
" The New City Hall" more recently occupied, at that time flood the long 
line ot barracks which furnilhed quarters for the troops whofe turbulent lpirit 
produced fo much contuiion in the city, and whofe determination to cut 
down " the Liberty-pole" proved fo powerful an element in the movements 
of that period. 

On the ealtern fide of the road to Bolton, near the corner of Beekman 
ftreet, at that time ltood the unfinifhed ftructure of " the New Prefbyterian 
Meeting," within whofe walls, on the following New Year's Day, the mef- 
fage of the gofpel was flrft delivered by the Rev. Dr. Rogers. That build- 



alfo, until within a few months, occupied the lame pofition — being the 
well-known "Brick Church" mecting-houfc in wl S ty the venerable 
Rev. Dr. Spring ftill retains his paftorate — but the building itfelf has given 
way to the den. adc, and has dr.appcarcd. 

\ fl •■ diftance ! Naflau Itreet, in Beekman Itreet, at that rime 

flood the remains of the old theatre — the third erected in the cr 

'iich had been defb during the political 

troubles which had cr New ^ 

fhort diftance King G 

A H > hurch cd ..imp 

Lutheran Church," a building which is well- remem bered bv main of the 
young men of the 

■ Warren lire I ambers ftreet, 

and i • the river, was the Vaux Hall, 

ebrati I 

been he fummei 

•l the rirll 
had been vilitcd and r.u n by 

to the firll Election. Im- 

■:, but he '• •ncr- 

ica in t tic ' which we write, he 

int of tin 
reflded there. \ aient period the pr 

Samuel Fraum es — " R 

l irden, the 

vifitors to which were r© I entertained with all th 'ich, 

man-. haracterized the chief of the < in//iir in 

Prefident Wafl ftabliftimei lutionary War this 

building w.i> ufed aa their fini hip by the 

( the tirll appearance f St. Pel ( [lurch 

now in Barclay Itreet. 

N rrh of the Common, on the eaftem lid ^ iy, where 



A. T. Stewart & Co.'s dry-goods ftore now ftands, in the olden time was 
the negro burying-ground ; and on the fide hill which extended eaftward, 
defcending toward the Little Collect, in the vicinity of Centre and Duane 
ftreets of 1861, was the place which was ufually fele&ed for the public execu- 
tion of criminals. The " Little Collect" referred to, was a low, marfhy lake, 
bordered on its northern margin by a ftrip of high, dry ground, which fepar- 
ated it from the Colleft, or Frefh water, a larger and deeper lake which occu- 
pied the fite of the " Tombs" and its vicinity, with an outlet into the North 
River along the prefent line of Canal ftreet. On the dry ftrip of ground 
feparating the two Collects before referred to, near the junction of Centre and 
Pearl ftreets of 1861, flood "the Powder-houfe," or magazine of the city; 
and a fhort diftance eaft from it, near the fite occupied by the Five Points, 
was a large tan-yard. The negro burying-ground and the gallows, the 
powder-houfe and the tan-yard have all difappeared ; and the two lakes 
have been filled up, and their outlet arched over, to afford room for the 
demands of an extending city. 

The Broad Way extended northward no farther than the prefent Duane 
ftreet, immediately north of which, near the fpot where the Hofpital now 
ftands, was the Ranelagh, a noted place of refort in the olden time. Still 
farther up, near the fpot where Grand ftreet now interfecls Broadway, ftood 
the country refidence of Mr. Bayard. It occupied a commanding fite which 
overlooked the upper part of the city, with the intervening valley and the 
furrounding country; and the fplendid gardens on its fouthern front, and 
the well-fhaded drive which led from the manfion to the Bowery lane, which 
it entered a fhort diftance above Broome ftreet, rendered it one of the moft 
delightful of the many elegant fuburban refidences of that day. 

Extending along the margin of the North River from the fort to Murray 
ftreet, on the line of Greenwich ftreet, to the upper extremity of the ifland in 
1767 was the " Road to Greenwich," as it was then called, furnifhing another 
outlet from the city to the northward. Along this road, alfo, were fcattered 
the elegant grounds and refidences of many of the leading citizens of that 
early day — among which were thofe of Mr. George Harrifon, in the vicinitv 

i\ rRODt en ion 

Harrifon rtrcct ; and Mr. Leonard Lifpenard, near Laight llrcet ; tl 
Abraham Mortier, Efq., the paymaltcr lince 

well known as the old Richmond Hill, in which < I Waflungton and 

l Burr have both rclided. corner of A irick and Charl- 

ton (beets; ti Admiral Sir Peter W 

which llill remains, iurrounded with the (hade rmer times, the • 

preferred refid< Abraham \ dclt mer- 

chants of the city, uth (beets; tfa 

James Jat . a leading importer of" that day, near Bethunc (be* 

^ er prominent merchant, 

which Hood "ii the line of H G awich ami v. 

ton (beets; th ibfequentrj neral 

in the royal fen I ■, 

Ninth avenue; thai ( Clarke — "Chelfea" —in which his 

fon-in-law, BUI ..nd which has remained 

until with: nty-third (beet, be- 

tween the Ninth and Tenth avenue ; [ohn Moi n S 

: the mofl learned members of the bar, and an e 

Liberty," which tlfo remained until within i been 

known as " the II Weft 1 

third llrcct, between I I uics. 

On the eaftern fide of the ifland, alfo, the f the priii 

citizei . CrofEng eaftward 

tr " ni Mr. Scott' Id have (buck the 

River near Turtle-Bay, near which, fronting Oil the Bofton road, an c.vtcn- 
fion ol the Bowery lane, was the elegant manfion of the Friend Robert 
Murray, whole venerable lady, in September, 1776, by detaining the Britilh 
rs at lunch, rendered inch efficient fervice to the retreating Amer 
fhort diftai r the prefeni corner of Firfl 

Avenue and Fiftieth Itrci lie country-feat of Mr. Beekman, one of 

the mofl diftinguifhed of the New Yorkers of that <.\.iv. That houfe, after 
(erving as the head-quarters of General II nd Robertfon, 


and furnifhing, in its green-houfe, a prifon for the martyr-fpy, Nathan Hale, 
ftill ftands one of the moil interefting memorials of old New York now in 
exiftence. Nearer to the city and to the river, was " Rofe Hill," the 
country-seat of Hon. John Watts, whofe city refidence on Dock ftreet 
will be referred to hereafter ; while in the immediate vicinity, and reached 
through the fame lane, on the bank of the river near the foot of Eaft Twen- 
ty-third ftreet, was the feat of J. Ketteltas. 

Near the Bofton road, alfo furrounded with gardens, were the feats of 
James Duane, Efq., near Gramercy Park, and T. Tiebout, near the Fourth 
avenue and Eaft Eighteenth ftreet — the former a diftinguifhed member of 
the bar, and well known in the subsequent hiftory of his country. The 
country-feat of Petrus Stuyvefant, then on the bank of the river (but near 
the corner of Eaft Seventeenth ftreet and the Firft avenue as the city now 
ftands), and communicating with the Bofton road by means of a long, 
ftraight, clofely-fhaded drive ; that of Gerardus Stuyvefant nearer to the 
road (near the prefent Thirteenth ftreet, between the Second and Third 
avenues), and that of Nicholas William Stuyvefant, a fine hip-roofed manfion, 
with a lofty portico, which flood in Eighth ftreet, between the Firft and 
Second avenues, were alfo prominent objects in the north-eaftern fuburbs of 
the city. Still nearer to the city, on the weft fide of the Bofton road, was 
the feat of Mr. Herrin, and a fhort diftance below it, that of Mr. Dyck- 
man; while the elegant double, brick refidence of Mr. De Lancey, on the eaft- 
ern fide of the Bowery lane near the prefent De Lancey ftreet, with its femi- 
circular gateway, its denle fhade trees, and its fine gardens in the rear of the 
houfe, was one of the moft attractive features in that part of the ifland. 

On the extreme eaftern front of the city, weftward as far as the Firft 
avenue, " the Stuyvefant meadows" prefented their dreary furface ; and 
notwithftanding the march of improvements which has characterized the 
paft fifty years, there are here and there lmall portions of thefe " meadows" 
ftill preferving nearly their original level, although furrounded by highly 
valuable improvements on every fide. 

In the fouth-eaftern part of the city near Corker's Hook, in 1 767, were 


alio fcattcrcd feveral fine country-feats, among which were thofe of Mr. 

, called "Mount Pitt," on (irand ltreet near Attorney ltreet ; ti. 
Mr. Ackland, on the extremirj f the H lc; thai of Mr. By van 

the principal among the merchants at that period, near the prclcnt Gouver- 
ncur Hip; Mr. Dcgrulhe's with its extenfn It, near t: 

and Mr. Henry Ru 
On the Bowery lane, on his ( , the 

traveller i led a new and . 

lane a me ftreet, l Baj .: I fa 

had been laid out ini 

m the line th, and Winne I 

M ■■>,.: R \/ 

ed. ( )n the callcrr. 

I her rnent 

in all other par- ,: all tin.. 

were the places where the \ the vicin- 

\I the butch- 

the call fide 


- . N 
and Bayard ftreets, on tl | 

ftood an — "the Bull's 

H :" — furrounded the drov< 

cattle, (heep, calves, etc., which were brought there for a market. The 
butch lived near by, and the public fl and " the 

Bull's Head " being in the lame neij the diftreffi 

which arc now prefented in the ftrt , .re then unknown; 

and the butcher boys — not Id robably, than in our 

day — found other opportunities, in 1707, than thofe which arc now afforded 



while carting their {mall ftock from the cattle-market to the diftant flaughter- 


Below " the Bull's Head," on the fame fide of the Bowery lane, at a dif- 
tance from the ftreet, but near the corner of the Pell ftreet of our day (not 
then opened), in 1767 flood a fmall, two-ftory frame building, which was the 
fcene of the tragedy of Charlotte Temple, fo well known to our readers ; 
and a portion of the old building, removed to the corner of Pell ftreet, 
ftill remains, being occupied as a drinking-fhop under the fign of " the Old 
Tree Houfe." 

Befide thefe objects, nothing of fpecial intereft then exifted to attract the 
attention of the annalift of that period, until the traveller had palled down 
the hill which then occupied the fite of the prefent Chatham fquare, and 
had approached " the Common" to which reference has already been made. 

Catherine and Oliver, James, Roofevelt, and Queen (now Pearl) ftreets, 
branched off to the left in 1767, as they ftill do; the firft three extending 
to the Eaft River, Roofevelt as far as Cherry ftreet, and Queen by its preient 
circuitous courfe joining with Hanover fquare, as it was then called, at Wall 

The fouthern portion of Queen ftreet at the period referred to (1767) 
was alfo known as " the Fly ;" and it was, at that time, one of the principal 
bufmefs ftreets in the city. In St. George's (now Franklin) fquare, Edward 
Laight then carried on bufinefs as a currier and dealer in hardware ; oppofite 
to whofe ftore the Hon. William Walton refided, in the ftill well-known 
" Walton Houfe," at that time the moil; elegant private refidence in the city. 
Near the fame ftreet (Oueen or Pearl), in Peck flip, at that time was the 
dry-goods ftore of James Farquarfon ; while near " the fhip yards" at the 
foot of James, Oliver, and Catherine ftreets, was the large diftillery of the 
Defbroffes family. In the fame ftreet (Oueen) near Beekman, were the watch- 
makers and jewellers' {hop of T. & M. Perry, and the large mercantile ef- 
tablifhment of Walter Franklin, one of the leading merchants of his day. 
In Beekman ftreet above Cliff, as is ftill the cafe, St. George's Chapel ftood 
— a folid, but very neat edifice, which had been opened for divine fervice in 

; ana in Beekman 

" G 

en referred to in the .1 
ltrcct, near the Burling : hardware 

which wen 

' nt in 

. 1775, ' ng other matter?, led I 
• I ■ ." at 1 Common, 

tain i 
moll influential 1 in the hai 

I Roy, .'• , cordage, yarn, dry goods, 

miai: i 

1 the 


nd all the other m 
were the k .nv of the merchant 

Church ; Mr. Rapclje, i merchai 

in the ; Philip 

Livingfton, a dealer in hardwai . . 

rum, furs, etc. — a leading politician, and a In I' : In- 

dependence, in 1776— near the ferry lb man 



& Co, dealers in dry goods, cables, fhoes, etc. — to whom the New-York tea 
fhip was configned in 1773; McDavitt, the auctioneer; and Nicholas Car- 
mer, at the fign of " the Crofs-Handfaws," were among the number of thofe 
who did bufinefs there ; while Bowne & Rickman, Richard Williamfon, 
and Smith Ramadge, large dealers of goods of every conceivable character, 
were in Queen ftreet, in the immediate vicinity. 

Proceeding thence down Queen ftreet, King (now Pine) ftreet was next 
parTed — Little Queen (now Cedar) ftreet at that time extending down no 
farther than Smith {now William) ftreet — and near by, the attractive gold- 
fmith's and jeweller's ftore of Charles Oliver BrufF was fure to arreft the 

Wall ftreet alio was a place of trade in 1767, as well as one of refi- 
dences. At that time, among the eftablifhments of other merchants who 
were there, might have been feen thofe of Breefe & Huffman, dealers of 
dry goods, crockery, etc. ; John Allicocke, one of the moft earneft of 
the "Sons of Liberty," a dealer in wines, teas, etc., on the corner of Queen 
(now Pearl) ftreet ; Edward Agar, a dealer in drugs, near the City Hall 
(now Cujlom-lwuje) ; John Thurman, jr., a dealer in dry goods, on the 
corner of Smith (now William) ftreet ; Jofeph Cox, a dealer in upholftery 
goods; Samuel Verplanck, a dealer in dry goods; and Mr. Coley, a filver- 
fmith, near the Coffee-houfe (Water jireet). 

Below Wall ftreet, proceeding down Hanover fquare — Queen ftreet ex- 
tending only to Wall ftreet — the pafler-by in 1767 entered one of the bufieft 
quarters of mercantile New York. Theophilatt Bache, Richard Bancker, 
and Henry Remfen, jr. & Co., heavy dealers in dry goods; Elizabeth Col- 
vil, a leading milliner and dealer in dry goods ; Samuel Broom & Co., ex- 
tenfive dealers in hardware and cutlery, rum, pork, crockery, etc. ; Abram 
Duryee, dealer in dry goods, paints, oils, etc. ; Hugh Gaine and James Riv- 
ington, the well-known publilhers and bookfellers ; Peter Goelet — a former 
partner of Peter T. Curtenius, a member of the popular " Committee of 
One Hundred," and grandfather of our refpected fellow-citizen, Peter Goe- 
let, Esq., of Broadway and Eaft Nineteenth ftreet — one of the moft exten- 


five dealer? in Kardwarc, imtlic, br 

. dealer? u 8c Gregory, 

r> in dry goods, nd Henrj Mc- 

. the latter the ncral 

merchandife, were anion. . in that 

" the Old Slip Marl « | the 

buftlc of the nci. 

I . like the 

only len Hied; although, like the;- . 

with the hulinc the mcr. 

the former that I i I -in which 

near:-. \\ 

liam Beckman at the fame tin 
n extenfn 


llreet. [< 
a llreet in 


buficft in 
Whitehall, H 

the C i. G 

intended : Governor 

nry Va \ icn in the 

city. -he mere! 

dealers in general merchan life; Dirck Brincl i hardwar 

metals at the fign of" the G H I 

in lugars ; and Ami; \ ! I 

wines and liqu 

In I'carl lire :nties flip, in 17 "the l-'i(h 


around that, as a centre, were alfo cluttered many of the mercantile eftab- 
lifhments of that period. Abeel & Byvanck, at the fign of " the New York 
made Spade and Sithe" — a fignificant fign when the non-importation agree- 
ment of 1765 was remembered — fold hardware in that vicinity; and there, 
alfo, were John Abeel, who dealed in anchors ; and John and Garrett Abeel, 
who were falters doing a large bufinefs. John Hammerfley & Co., promi- 
nent merchants of that period ; Ifaac Low, the Prefident of the Chamber of 
Commerce and of the popular " Committee of One Hundred," although, 
finally, a loyalift refugee ; and Benjamin Booth, dealing in general merchan- 
dile, were alfo among thofe who did bufinefs near the Coenties Market. Mr. 
Vanduerfon, largely engaged as a tallow-chandler and foap-boiler, as well as 
a dealer in watches, mufic, and jewelry, tranfacled his bufinefs in " Bayard 
ftreet, near the Coenties Market ;" and there, alfo, were the crockery and 
glafs itores of George Ball ; the fchool-houfe of Clementina and Jane Fer- 
gufon ; and the refidence of John Livingfton, Efq. 

The river fronts, alfo — efpecially that on the Eaft River — furnifhed 
places of bufinefs to many of the merchants and tradesmen of that period. 
On Hunter's quay, between Old flip and Wall ftreet, were Grey, Cunning- 
ham & Co., dealers in dry goods, boots and fhoes, metals, paints, glafs, hard- 
ware, fifh, groceries, rum, etc. ; on Rotton row — the weft fide of Old flip, 
between Little Dock (now Water) ftreet and Cruger's wharf [Front Jlreet) 
— were the law-office of John Coggill Knapp, a notorious pettifogger of that 
period; the goldfmiths' (hops of John Dawfon and Samuel Tingley; and the 
(hip-chandlery of Samuel Loudon — afterward the patriotic printer of " The 
New York Packet," whofe fervices during the War of the Revolution are fo 
well known to every ftudent of American hiftory ; and on Cruger's wharf 
[Front ftreet between Old and Coenties flips) were the fhip-chandlery of 
Henry White, and the mercantile eftablifhments of John & Thomas 
Burling, and William Seaton & Co. ; while Abraham Mercier kept a ftock 
of hardware at the fign of " the Crofs-keys and Crown," near the Powle's 
Hook ferry, at the foot of Courtlandt ftreet, on the North River. 

At the period referred to (1767) the city of New York was the head- 


quarters of the military citabliftiment in North America ; and General 

Thomas Gage, the commander-in-chief of the forces, rcfidcd in a large 

double houfc, furrounded with the lite now occupied by 

the (1 d 69 Broad itr 

•he members of the bar of N a that day, the principal 

were the II a. ^ liam Smith, a member of the Council an :' the 

\ - •' Bci • . ■'• re n the 

Dutch Church and the I 

\i < rreenwich " 

been already rcferre me I. nul- 

la r ray an 

crown ; W the trium . 

inltrumciuality, prin New York 1 

W I 

( ami Itrcet 

\ fudge Smith rcmar. ■ we 

I ncc, and, 
all the • the weftern 

part of Connecticut and • 

from l.nm ; and dur 

tcr an equal, unrcllraiiu . and em- 

ploy 111; 

The • 1 , 

, and that whi ritain 

into the I u nd and the other co! 

will fliow the relative inr , even at that 

early period; while to the mercantile reader they will be equally interefting, 
in other rclpccts; the latter, c; -.ill illultratc the fidelity of the mer- 

chants ol New York to the non-importation agreement 
pared with that of the merchant* in the other 





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The city of New York, as it appeared in 1767, has been preiented to the 
reader with all the care and particularity which the circumftances will allow 
— a defcription which, it is hoped, will enable the reader of the following 
papers the more completely to understand their meaning. As the purpofe of 
that defcription has been fimply to illuftrate the text, and to facilitate the 
examination of the interefting papers which have found places in this volume, 
by the general reader, there has been no defire to do more than to render the 
peculiar features of New York in 1767 as diftinftly as poffible, leaving to each 
individual reader the ufe of the material which has thus been furnifhed, in 
fuch manner and in fuch connection as his own taile may determine, as he pro- 
grefTes with his work. If, in this fingle defire, the purpofe of the Editor may 
be followed by fuccefs ; if the readers of the following papers fhall thereby 
be led to take any greater intereft in their contents, or to feel any ftronger 
regard for the general fubject on which they treat, or to look back with any 
greater degree of pride on the hiflory of the city which was the fcene of the 
feveral events referred to, the labor which has been bellowed on this chapter 
will not have been fpent in vain, and one of the moll agreeable rewards 
which can attend the ftudent of American hiilory, will have been the lot of 
the writer. H. B. D. 

Morrisania, N. Y., April 13, 1 861. 

N 1 W \ ORK 

AM E K It" A N 11 EVO II 1 I ON" 



[The • \ on t he day 

The S 
the • the rirll 

he mod i) cement pi 

the meafure there had been n 

filled the meafure with tl 

' trad- 
Great B City Arms Ta\ era ; aiul 
they had : intry while 

:,c lame time they i 

fimilc ' the C ted by the 

preceded it. 

< In the evening of the eventful i mber, the red which 

is defcribed in tl . ppofition maintained 

that the acl was repealed in the 

k-r particulars of thi may be found in Lieutenant 


4 2 


Governor Colden's defpatches to Secretary Conway, on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, 1765, and to the Lords of Trade, December 6, 1765; Holt's New 
York Gazette or Weekly Pojlboy, No. 1192, November 7, 1765; Edes & 
Gill's Bojlon Gazette, November 11, 1765; The Bojlon Pojlboy and 
Advertifer, November 11, 1765; Dunlap's " Hiftory of New York," I., 
p. 419; Bancroft's "United States," V., pp. 355-6; Graham's "Hiftory 
of America," (London edit.,) IV., pp. 233-4; Ramfay's "American Revolu- 
tion," I., pp. 65, 66; Booth's " Hiftory of New York," pp 418-420 ; Daw- 
fon's " Sons of Liberty in New York," pp. 82-1 1 l.J 

New York Nov 2 nd 1765 

Dear Sir 

I Have Receiv'd my Cheft and your Letter 
With the Greateit Pleafure immaginable, and am Extreamly 
Gladd to Hear that you are well I had the Good Luck 
to get on Board a Sloop from Claverack, but did not Get 
10 Far as N. Winter 1 till the fecond night About 2 OClock 
then the wind Halld to the N W and we went thro the 
way Gat 2 like hell out of A Great Gun — A fea Term — and 
Got to N York about 1 1 the Next day I m now in A 
Good irate of Health for which I thank my God and I 

Hope You may Receive thefe in the fame 

I m juft now in high fpirits full of Old Madiera and will 
Give you A View of the Sons of America 5 by whole Re- 
fentments will or would (tamp the drummer 4 had he not 

1 " New Windfor" two miles below Newburgh. 

2 "Way Gate" — one of the narrow paffes in the Highlands, through which 
the Hudfon river flows. 

3 Probably intended for "the Sons of Liberty"- — an aflbciation organized 
for the purpofe of refilling the aggreffions of the government in the colonies. 

4 A nickname which had been applied to Lieutenant Governor Colden. 


Given A Proclamation to the Mob that h<\l have nothing 

to do with them 1 

The firfl da) oi \<>\ r our City feem'd to be Very much 
difturbd bur did nor fa) much b\ K< .Hon rluir rh< \ did not 
know wether the (lamps took place the firfl md day' 

the firfl Evening there raif'd A Wondeifull 1 Mob 

bur Did no damage b) Reafon oi the uncertainty the 2nd 

the | .n in the line c 

York H 

' i 
5TAMPS, bui 

arriv .:'. I I 

"I Hoi air, 

• w . B \M \K. D. C I. ( 
" I 

November, rued, any of the 


R. : 

" The Freemen, I 
that the STAMPS 

of the ( v ^ 


the r he writer was a (banger in the city; th 

; by the I ./,',' th 

iiiith that the 

occurred on the evening of the l \ mber. 

lemonftration here refer' 'he evenii 


Day we heard that the Governor was defign'd to diftribute 
the ftamps 1 he lent for the ioldiers from tortile bay 2 he 
Planted the Canon Againit the City 3 he fixt the Cowhorns 
with mufket balls 2 Cannon was Planted Againft the Fort 
Gate for fear the Mob iliould Break in, Loded with Grape 
fhot, he ordered the Canon of the Batery 4 to Be fpiked up 
for the Mob fhould Come fo far as Break out A Civil war 
And nock down the fort Major James 5 had faid never 
fear for I drive N York with 500 Artilery Soldiers" he 
Placed Soldiers at the Gaol 7 to Prevent the Mobs Letting 
out the Prifoners he Orderd 15 Artilery Soldiers at his 

ber 31, as will be feen by reference to Holt's New York Gazette, No. 1192, 
Nov. 7, 1765. 

1 In this, alfo, the fame error of date occurs. If there was any fpecial 
report on this fubjecl; at all, it was on the firji inftead of the Jecond of 
November, as may be feen by a reference to any of the contemporary au- 

2 This force had probably been moved into the fort in compliance with 
a requeft from Lieutenant Governor Colden to General Gage, September 2, 

3 See alfo Holt's New York Gazette, 1192, November 7, 1765. 

4 This refers to the guns on the Copfey Battery, near the foot of White- 
hall ftreet, which had been fpiked by order of the Lieutenant Governor to 
prevent the people from turning them on the fort. This very aft, however, 
increafed the excitement of the times, and at a fubfequent period called 
forth feveral popular demonftrations, particulars of which may be found in 
" The Park and its Vicinity," {Valentine's Corporation Manual {ox 1855, 
pp. 440-442.) 

5 Major Thomas James of the Royal Artillery. 

6 The remarks of Major James, on which this ftatement was bafed, have 
been differently interpreted ; and a fynopfis of the difcuflion can be found 
in " The Sons of Liberty in New York," pp. 83, 84. 

7 The prefent " Hall of Records" in the Park. 


houfi \< ar the c B ack fam Formerl) 

dwelled and the refl oi the foldiers he kept in th< 
in readinefs for an I ment In the Evening the Citi- 

begin to mufter about the fti About 7 in the 

Evening I heard A Great Hozaing Near the broadwa) I 
ran rhar wa) with a Number of Ol 1 where the \ 
juft began the) had 1 iog) of tin Governor' fade 
oi Paper which fat on An old Chair which A S. .mun c 
ried Upon his head the Mob went from the Fields down 
th< Fl) hozaing Corner with Amaffen fight of Can- 

the Mob Mr. Ma ers vi ho was 

appoint! imp Mallei in London Since he did not 

1 ' 

1 G . 

I Columbia) College, 'ark place, 

building which 

November iovernor , November 

. "■■ 
" I 
ftreet b< m the 

marfliy ma I ) 

\ ' MS. •• M irk< I. 

f . 
(ramp-matter, ami \\ I I it at the requeft of the n the 

.•.here the building 50 Wall (1 . H 

I i re. 


Except it they Honor'd him with 3 Hozaurs 1 from thence 
they went to the fort 2 that the Governor might fee his 
Ephogy if he dare fho his face the Mob gave feveral who- 
zaus and thretened the Officers upon the wall Particularly 
Major james 3 for faying he'd drive N York with 500 Men 
Now tis faid that the Governor was A Drummer in the 
Army at Scotland' the Mob had Aflurance Enough to 
break open the Governors Coatch houfe and took his 
Coatch from under the muffle of the Canon they Put the 
Ephogy upon the Coatch one fat up for Coatchman with 
the Whip in his hand whilft Others drawed it About the 
town, down to the CofFy Houfe 5 the Merchants was Ex- 

1 " Three huzzas." 

2 Fort George, at the foot of Broadway. 

" Major James" — Thomas James received a captain's commiffion in 
the Royal Artillery, March 1, 1755, and a major's, October 23, 1761. In 
the fall of 1765 he had come down from Crown Point; and had halted two 
companies of artillery, then in the city, on their way from England to the 
North, to affift in enforcing the Stamp Act in New York, the refult of which 
is feen in this letter. He was promoted to a lieutenant colonelcy, January 1, 
1771 ; to a colonel's command, February 19, 1779; and to the poll of 
colonel commandant of the artillery, July 6, 1780. His firft wife, a Span- 
iih lady, died in 1776; his fecond was Margaret, daughter of James De 
Peyfter, Efq., of Jamaica, New York, who furvived him. Mrs. Martin, his 
daughter, died in New York in Auguft, 1835. 

4 Referring to a report prevalent at that time, which has been denied, 
however, that Lieutenant Governor Colden had been a drummer in the 
army of the Pretender, in Scotland, many years before. 

5 The Merchants' Coffee Houfe — a noted place of refort at that time — 
flood where the Journal of Commerce office now ftands, at the corner of 
Wall and Water ftreets. 


ceidingl) Pleafd And the mob Srill increafing from 

flu in e 

-::• -::- w -::- * * 

with About ^ or 600 Candles to alight them it was a dark. 
night and not A Breath of Wind I ran down to the Fort 
to hear what the) laid as tin M <, me down it mad< A 
Butifull Apj And a- foon As Major james law them 

I haar'd him faj from off the wals H<ar the) Come b) 
(, d A foon As tin Mob fee the tort they Gave tl 
Chears and Came down to the Fort the) went under the 
Cannon which was plant \<> em with G [hot, 

tin \ hi.! a Soldier upon the wals, to till tin rebel drummer 
or Major James r * » ( ! to fin tin \ Placed the 

Gallov Vgainfl th< I Gat< and took Clubs and beal \ 
C t . i i 1 1 : t it And then (■ Whozaus in deryance the) 

then Concluded to Bu 1 ys and the Governors 


the li I Kad 

•her then 
to the I-*i>rt, un in ihc manner 

ribed in t!. 

the day, G 

had been threatened with fummary punifhment fliould he " lire upon the 

; "they intrepidly marched with the G 

the very Gate, when 

had not been retrained by fome humai who had Influence 

them, would doubt!. nCii the F "." 11 :' \ 


Coatch in the Boldengren 1 before there Eyes 2 they told M 
James as foon As the Coatch was burnt they would knock 
down his houfe then they * 

was juft going to Major James to Knock his houfe down 
and if he was A Man he fliould Go and defend it. the 

Ladys fainted as they Could not Go on board 

Then the Mob Gave three Chairs and went to Major Jamefes 
And drove the Soldiers out the Back way then with one 
Confent they began upon the houfe and in Leis than 10 
Minutes had the windows and dores the Looking Glaffes 
Mehogany Tables Silk Curtains A Libiry of Books all the 
China and furniture they feather Beds they cut and threw 
about the itreets and burnt broke and tore the Garden drank 
3 or 4 Pipes of wine deltroyd the Beef throo the butter 
about and at Laft burnt the whole 3 only one red Silk Cur- 
tain they kept for A Colour 4 then they diftroyed the The 
3 day they was refolv'd to have the Governor Ded or Alive 6 

1 The Bowling Green — ftill preferved, at the foot of Broadway. 

2 " we make no Doubt, the L 1 G r, and his Friends, had 

the Mortification of viewing the whole Proceeding from the Ramparts of the 
Fort." — Edes & Gill's Bo/ton Gazette, November 11, 1765. 

3 As a partial compenfation for this damage Major James received four 
hundred guineas in England ; and, in December, 1766, the Affembly of New 
York voted him a gratuity of £1745 15s. 2.',d., as a further compenfation. 
Vide Journal of Affembly. 

4 As " the Colours of the Royal Regiment, were taken out and carried off 
triumphantly" — {Vide Holt's New York Gazette, 1192, November 7, 1765) 
— there is no doubt the writer here refers to that circumftance. 

5 " The next day letters and Meffages were fent unto me, threatening my 

Illi. STAMP ACT RIO l , t . 

The torr Got up the rafhiens' in order tor Battle And the 
mob began before dark tin Governor fent tor Hi> Coun- 
cel which held about i Hours wliiht thoufands ftood b) 
ready waiting tor the word the Gov 1 concluded ami 
promifed faithfully to have nothing to do with the Ramps' 
and he would fend them back to London with Capt Davis 
all Piacablc all the mob went home 
every man to his home Bri- 

1 t rHER 4 

life, if [did r upftam] 

1 " . 

1 tl 

i the 


homely bui 

NEW YORK IN 1770. 


[The letter from which the following has been extracted, is a bufmefs 
letter which was written from the city of New York to Dr. Petrus Tappan, 
of Efopus (now Kingjlon, Vljitr Cotmty, N. Y.). It clearly indicates the 
difficulties which " the Sons of Liberty" in New York had to encounter in 
the ftruggle of the American Revolution, and the character of the agencies 
which the government appealed to in fupport of its prerogatives. 

The troubles which arofe from the hand-bill call for a public meeting, 
to take into confideration the betrayal of the popular rights by the General 
Affembly of the province (together with copies of the call itfelf, of the 
fecond hand-bill figned "Legion," and of other documents which this affair 
produced,) have been fully defcribed in Dawfon's "The Park and its Vicin- 
ity" (Valentine's Manual for 1855, pp, 446-449); and Leake's "Life of 
General John Lamb," pp. 49—63.] 

New York, April 12 th , 1770. 


Capt McDougal 1 is indeed in Jail, & I hope if he is 

1 Subfequently General Alexander McDougal of the army of the Revolu- 
tion. He had been arrefled on the information of James Parker, the printer 
of it, on a charge of writing the hand-bill call of the meeting, figned " A Son 
of Liberty ;" and having refufed to give bail, he had been thrown into prifon. 
" Captain McDougal" was a wealthy retired ihipmafter, an active " Son of 
Liberty," and a fincere patriot. After the war, he was the firft prefident of 
the Bank of New York, and he died in 1795. 

■ YORK l\ 177 


brought to tryal, he will come off with flying colours'. 
Ili< party againft him is verj virulent &, I hope, impotent. 
I niyiclt am threaten'd (by papers thrown into my houfe) 
with a Damnation Drubbing and [mprifonment, orl lui- 
picion of being the Author of th< So that 

tor 4 or 5 Weeks pafl 1've.walk'd the Si (efpeciall) of 

an Evening) arm'd with eil Sword or Piftols or both. 

No attempt however has been made upon me, except the 
night the firfl letter was thrown in, when (as m\ Serv' tells 
me) a Man knock'd at my door, dreffed in a flapp'd hat 
Overclubb'd hair. .1 \\ -4 ; \ .1 Ruffled Shirr V .1 pair 
oi Sailor's Tronic . \ ••, kind of Difguife indeed! 
I'm likewife accufd b) one of the papers thrown into m\ 
houfe ot being the Author of the Paper fign'd 

11 umed 

a true hill againfl him .it the April term 

•ut time. 
libran | \ 

I he Spirit <.t the time 

venc, in order -he dclln: I • the 

late B General 

,ltl "' 1 to the I ncral voice ->(' their conltituents, the . ; 

,nun ' : - tude, and the el'>ri'. u ^ ftruggle we have cn- 

ui for our invaluable birthrights, dared 
without the lea" mo fl 

eligible place will he in the Fields, near Mr. De La M I the 

time, — between 10 and n o'clock this morning, where wc d \ erv 

friend of his country will attend. 

" I EGII >V 


tho' God knows I'm not the Author of the one paper or 
the other. You fee, & I hope you will in your Town 
properly reprefent, the Conduct of the party oppof'd to us. 

In cafe of a new Election I hope you will exert yourfelf 
fo far as your Influence extends & fo far as your Connec- 
tions will admit, to procure the -Election of fuch Members 
as you can believe will prove friends to their Country. If 
I'm not miftaken, I've heard that Mr. Clinton has Marry'd 
your Sifter'. If fo, I give you joy ! He's a very good man ; 
but I'm afraid he has been overfeen in voting againft my 
Friend McDougal. i. e. in joining in the Vote, that the pa- 
per fignd A Son of Liberty* was a Libel ; whoever it might 

be that wrote it. * * * * * 



Your humble Servt, 

Benj. Young Prime. 

" To Dr. Petrus Tappen 

at Eufopus." 

1 George Clinton, afterward Governor of the State, married Mifs Corne- 
lia Tappan, fifter of Dr. Petrus Tappan, to whom this letter was addrefTed. 

2 A copy of the hand-bill addreffed " To the BETRAYED Inhabitants 
of the City and Colony of NEW YORK," and figned " A Son of Liber- 
ty," may be found in Valentine's Manual for 1855, pp. 482-484. 


[The fubftancc of the following narrative has been puhlifhcd, by the 
the dilVinguilhcd author of it, many 

it publication, and the intcreit which ■■■ 

•lent in the form in w 
1 \\ • left it. HUtorical 

f the narrative, when compared with th< lhcd 

in l ->' ; i ; and they their 

(helve . 

le the nan rni. 

I : . p. In 17 G 

v De J n the 

dit.ilb .1 

t'n >n 

I I c carlicft frier. 
memb 1 • " / s 

rnment — an "mil 

man I ( : ' . the N rthern 
camp 1 

In the i: , he . and 

II. At 1 'i the 

Mohawk valley, he perfon ; and 

he remained in command of that poll until the 11 he 

joined the main army under V. :,, with which I :: the 
action M nth, [line 

II .. with Sullivan in hi .It the [ndians; and in 

I in the \ M hawk, ren- 

dering great lcrvicc - try. 

In \J>)Z Prefldeni V\ n appointed him to treat with the Creek In- 

dians; and in the fame year he wa- appointed a br: era! in the army 


defigned to operate againft the North-weftern Indians, which office he de- 

He was fheriff of the county of New York from 1784 to 1787, and from 
1791 to 1795 ; and mayor of the city in 1807. 

In the fecond war with Grea.t Britain he alfo joined with great fpirit; and 
on the 22d of Auguft, 1830, he died, aged 90 years.] 

The account of the Lexington Battle 1 was received at 
New York the Sunday after it took place" and occafioned 
an Impuife in the Inhabitants which produced a general 
Infurretfion of the Populace who affemblyed and not being 
able to procure the Key of an arfnell 3 where a number of 
arms belonging to the Coloniel Goverment were depohted 
forced open the door and took poffefiion of thole arms con- 
filling of about 600 Mufkets with Bayonets & Catrige 
boxes to each filled with ball Catridges 4 Thefe arms were 
diftributed among the moft active of the Citizens who formed 
themfelves into a Voluntary Corps and affumed the Gover- 

1 This " account," figned by " T. Palmer, One of the Committee of 
Safety," dated " Watertoton, IVednefday morning, near ten o'clock, April 
19, 1775," can be found entire, in The New York Gazette and Mercury, 
April 24, 1775. 

• " This city was alarmed yefterday by a report from the eaftward, that 
the King's troops had attacked the Maflachufetts-Bay people." — Letter from 
New York to a gentleman in Philadelphia, April 24, 1775. 

3 " The Arfenal" here referred to was a portion of the City Hall in Wall 
ftreet, in which the arms of the city were kept. — Leake's "Life of General 
Lamb," p. 103. 

4 "Towards evening (Sunday, April 23,) they went and fecured about 
half the city arms ; a guard of about one hundred men, I am told, was then 
placed at the City Hall, to fecure the reft of the arms." — Letter from New 
York, April 24, 1775. 


i ) 
mint of the City. The) poflefled themfelves of the keys 
of the Cuftome-houfe and rook poffeftion of all the public 
{lores. 1 There was a general (lagnation of bufinefs. The 
armed Citizens Conftantl) parading about the c 

Without any Definate obj< '. Part of tin 18th Britifh 
led the Royal Iriih under the Command of the 
Major of the regiment* who v. rrifoned in tin- Cit) 

Confined themfelves to their barraks. The unfyftemifed 
and Confufed manner in which thin. onduded mani- 

I the neceffit) of forming fome regular plan of c- 
erment to efl hich a meeting of the Citizens wen 
quefted .if th< Merchanl Coffee-houfe when it was Unani- 
moufl) agreed thai the Goverment fliould be placed in 
the hands of a Committer and lblemn refolutions Entered 
into to Support their meafures untill further provifion 
fliould be made by the Continental Congrefs* which v 

ie kcvs 
i the buil what 

they had calling u: their exam] 

— Le 

1 The ;iment here 


• Moncreiffe commanded, bui Gov. ( 

fpatch to Eai f Dartn (tatement. 

'The Barracks were in "the Fields" — as the Park « 

•i a line with Cham: . near the lite lately occupied by 

"the Neu < 11 .:!." 

1 The Continent ( met at Philad W nefday, May to, 


fhortly to meet in Phyladelphia. The feacred honor of the 
Citizens being pledged at the fame time to lupport the 
meaiures of Congrefs. This Committee amount to loo 1 
was Initanitly Chooien and entering with becoming deliber- 
ation on the duties Delagated to them reilored as much 
order in the city as under circumitances fo new and ex- 
traordinary could be reaionably expected" — It is proper 

1 The following gentlemen conftituted this " Committee of One Hundred" 
as it was called: Ifaac Low, Chairman; John Jay, Pet r V. B Living- 
fton, Philip Livingfton, Ifaac Sears, David Johnfon, James Duane, Alcxr 
McDougal, John Broom, John Alfop, Thomas Randall, Leonard Lifpenard, 
William Walton, Jofeph Hallett, Gabriel H. Ludlow, Nicholas Hoffman, 
Abraham Walton, Henry Remfen, Petr Van Schaack, Peter T. Curtenius, 
Jofeph Bull, Abraham Brafher, Abraham P Lott, Abraham Duryee, Francis 
Lewis, Jofeph Totten, Thomas Ivers, Hercules Mulligam, John Anthony, 
Francis Baffett, Victor Bicker, Theophilus Antony, John White, William 
Goforth, William Denning, Ifaac Roofevelt, Jacob. Van. Voorhees, Jeremiah 
Piatt, Comfort Sands, Robert Benfon, Willm W. Gilbert, John Berrien, 
Gabriel. W. Ludlow, Nicholas Roofevelt, Fredc Jay, Edward Fleming, 
Lawrence Embree, Samuel Jones, John Delancey, William W. Ludlow, 
John B Moore, Rudolphus Ritzema, Lindley Murray, John Lafher, Lan- 
cafler Burling, George Janaway, James Beekman, Samuel Verplanck, Richard 
Yates, David Clarkfon, Thomas Smith, James DefbrofTes, Eleazer Miller, 
Augultus Van Horn, Garrat Keteltas, John Read, Benjamin KifTam, John 
Moran Scott, Peter Goelet, Cornelius Clopper, John Van Cortlandt, John 
Marfton, Jacobus Van Zandt, Gerardus Dyckman, John Morton, Thomas 
Marfton, George Folliot, Jacobus Lefferts, Richard Sharp, Hamilton Young, 
William Seton, Abraham Brinkerhoff, Benjamin Helme, Robert Ray, Wal- 
ter Franklin, David Beekman, Evert Banker, Mich ls Bogert, William 
Laight, Samuel Broom, John Lamb, Daniel Phcenix, Anthony Van Dam, 
Daniel Dunfcomb, John Imlay, Oliver Templeton, Lewis Pintard, Cornelius 
P Low, Petrus Byvank, Thomas Buchannan. [London Papers, XLV.] 

2 " You will not be furprifed to hear that congrefTes and committees are 
now eftablifhed in this Province, and are acting with all the confidence and 


hen- to obferve that the Cit) of N< \ York Contained a 
very larg portion or" perfonal Influence in favour of the 
meafures or the Britifh Goverment and main of the per- 
fons choafen on the Committee were of that defcription'. 
The very ftrong Current of popolar Influence however 
which pervaded as foon as advife of the affair ai i 
ington arrived kecpt that Influence in fufficient Check 
while its tendenc) to 1 n deliberation was nor with- 

out ufe and opperated more powerfully in fupport of the 
doings ot tin Committe< I Bririih tn Garifoned 
in th( < it) v.c re O i Join the arm] at B i ton. Ir 

would have been an eafy bufinefs to made them prifoners. 
The timid difpofition oi Committee Caufed them to 

fuppofe this could nor in without the lofs "i .1 

number ot lives, and agreed to let them depart with th< ir 
arms and acoutraments without Mo - I I .< . .. ord- 

ingly marched from the barr.i embark about I 

oClock in rh< forenoon "t .1 fin< pleafant da) There was 
a public houfe near Beekman S - pt by a Mr Jafper 
D ik( . At this houfe the warm friend ofth< oppofition to 
tin Britifh meafun 3 ufed to meet dayly. I was at rhar (> 
with about halt dozen more wh< n word was brought rhar the 

authority of a 
JTIOU ■ . 

"the( Hundred, 

the " Committc. 

June 6, i 775. Li. Gov. I 


troops .had Commenced their march. And that befide the 
arms and acoutraments they carried they were taking with 
them fundry Carts Loaded with Chefts filled with arms — As 
we were among the number of thofe who confider the per- 
miting the troops to depart at any rate when we had it in 
our power to make them Prifoners proceeded from fear 
or fomething worfe and as the permifTion given by the 
Committee did not extend to their taking any fpare arms 
with them It was fuddenly determin to hazard the Con- 
fequence of endeavouring to feizee upon thefe fpare arms. 
The perfons prefent by agreement fet out on different routs 
through the City to alarm our friends. My rout led me to 
pals the Coffee-houfe 1 where after notifying the meafure 
about to be purlued I proceeded through Water Street to 
the Exchange which then ftood at the Lower End of Broad 
ftreet from whence I difcovered the Troops on their March 
down Broad Street I proceeded up the ftreet and on difcov- 
ering feveral Carts Loaded with Chefts of arms in front of 
the troops under a fmall Guard I ftopt the front Horfe 
which of Courfe caufed a halt in the whole line of march. 
On the appearance of the Commanding officer to Enquire 
into the caufe of the halt I informed him that the permif- 
fion of the Committee did not extend to the troops taking 
with them any other arms than thofe they carried about 
them — The appearance of David Mathews who had lately 

1 Corner of Wall and Water ilreets, on the fite now occupied by the office 
of the Journal of Commerce. 


been appointed Mayor of the Cit) (and whofe tory prin- 
cipals were well known to be oppofed to Congerfenal mea£ 
un-i diverted the Converfation from the Commanding 
officer (»t rhr troop- to himfelf— The halt of the troops 
afforded rime tor the Collection of the Citizens. The ( 
loaded with arm- were turned out of the line of ma 
V d the troops under arm- addrefled with an Imitation to 
fuch as difliked tin s in which the) weri over 

their arm- And receive the protection of the Citizens who 
confidered them as Bretheren of the fame famaly But it 
their fentiments corobarated with the Violent meafures oi 
the Britifh Goverment and the) were difpofed to .loin in 
the Barbarous work of fheding the blood of their fellow 
citizens we were read) to meet them in the Crimfon field. 
One ot the S overing lii- arms was received with 

repeated huzzas and Led awa) b) the Exulting citizens, 
lome tew afterwards followed and " ( with the 

taken arm- to a place <>t S.m\. The troops marched to 
the ri\er and embarked under the II the citizei 

Colonel V» 

ftancc. W ill its — at the pen . md until Feb] 

i 776 was the 1 

1--;, was alderman rd, in wh have heen 


To the ball-alley and yard of Abrahi [way 

and John itrcct, as will appear from the accompan; 

" I reneral Gage i r Hamilton, the Alia, that he thought it 

I he a proper meafurc to put the Troops under his command B 
of that Ship, and dclircd him to coniult with me upon it. \ I was very 


[The following lines, alfo taken from the autograph of Colonel Willett, 
appear to have been part of another verfion of " the Broad jlreet ajfair.'" 
Although there are many particulars which have appeared in the preceding 
narrative, there are, alfo, fome which are not related in that; and it has been 
confidered proper to publHh both, rather than to mutilate either of them. J 

The particulars attending this transaction will I truft Juitify 
the account I (hall give of it; Similar lenfations with thoie 

fenfible this fmall number of Troops (one hundred) could not be of any 
uie in the Barracks, and were expofed to thoie very difagreeable circum- 
ftances I have already mentioned, I did not doubt of the propriety of the 
meafure propofed by Genl Gage a difficulty however arofe on account 
of the women and Children, who were too numerous to be taken on Board 
with the men, almoft the whole that belong to the Regiment being in the 
Barracks here with this detachment. This occafioned a delay of eight or 
ten davs in which time feveral foldiers deferted. We at length thought of 
enchamping the Women and Children on what is called the Governors 
Ifland, till they could be otherwife taken care of, and yefterday was fixed for 
embarking the Troops on Board the Afia. The Provincial Congrefs had 
notice, that fome people propofed to flop the embarkation upon which they 
publifhed a hand Bill advifeing the People by no means to moleft the Troops, 
or interrupt them in their defign. They likewife appointed a number of 
their members to join the City Magiftrates and affift them in preventing any 
interruption to the Troops. As foon as the Troops marched from the Bar- 
racks, feveral People began to harangue them, exhorting them to defert, and 
alluring them of fufficient Protection. Two or three fellows had the hardi- 
nefs to turn off with their arms, from the Ranks, and were immediately car- 
ried away by the People, when the Troops got upon the Dock where they 
were to embark on board of Boats, the Carts following in the rear with their 
Baggage, were ftoppd and in the Face of the Mayor, Aldermen, Congrefs and 
Committee men, turn'd about by a few defperate fellows, carried to a Place 
in Town, where they opened the Baggage, and took out a number of fpare 
arms and all the ammunition belonging to the Detachment. The Troops 
embarkd without their Baggage." — Lt. Gov. Golden to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth, June 7, 1 77 ^ (Colden MS. New York Hiftorical Society Library). 


by uhirli I was governed at that rime I have experienced 
on feveral trying o ifions and never failed terminating 
fuc< •< liullv Ir is an Enthewfifm with which Soldiers can- 
not be too much [nfpired when entering into action; In- 
deed more or lefs of this Enthewlifm (hould govern e> 
ftep of a Soldier defirous oi atchieving fame. The fenti- 
ment common in an army that h< is a good Soldier who 
does what he is ordered will feldom procure that fame 
which ought t<> be tin- foldier G To arrive ar thi> 

Goal ir i- nec< flary not only to obi \ orders bul to feek 
canons of performing Enterprifes b) voluntary fervices and 
by] anoying the Enem) The meafure 

dire&ed by the Committee (who wire vetted with the Gov- 
erment of the i • r the Britifti troops to depart 

unmolefted with tin ir arms and acoutraments tho no doubt 
a proper one was nor univerlall) approved "t. and as foon 
as it was announced that the troops were on their march 
and iking with them feveral Cart- loaded with fj 

arms a fudden determination of a i< '.\ perfons who wen 
then affemblyd al a M Jef] D who kecpt a public 

houfe in Water Street neai Beekman flip were the mod 
zealous partizans in the caufe oi Liberty ufed to have 
daylv and nightly meetings. It was about \i 0CI01 k M: 
when the account of this movement of the troop- was 
brought to Mr Drakes at which place I happened to be 
at the time, and with the others then at that houfe fel out 
to alarm the citizens in order to Coll* ' force to prevent 


the troops from carrying thoie fpare arms with them. The 
way I took and the difpatch I made brought me to the 
front of the troops as they were marching, before any of 
the other perfons who fet out on the fame bufinefs ; On 
my arrival in their front which was at the Corner of Beaver 
ftreet in Broad ftreet I ftoped the horfe that was drawing 
the front Cart-load of arms. This of courfe occafioned a 
halt in the Troops. And brought the Major of the regi- 
ment 1 who was the comanding officer in front to enquire 
into the caufe of the halt. I had the horfe by the head 
and on the appearance of the Major informed him that the 
halt was made to prevent the fpare arms from being carried 
off, as the act of the Committe did not authoriie the troops 
taking any other arms than fuch as they carried on their 
backs, while I was making this explanation to the Major 
David Mathews Efquire who was at that time Mayor of 
the city 2 came up And accofted me in the following words 
I am furprifed Mr Willett that you will hazard the peace 
and endanger the lives of our citizens when you know that 
the Committee have directed that the troops ihall be per- 
mitted to depart unmolefted, as Mr Mathews was a Tory 
and zealous fupporter of the meafures of the Britiih Gov- 
ernment His preience or opinion could have no Influence 

1 Major Hamilton was appointed lieutenant in this regiment, October l, 
1755; captain, March 4, 1760; and major, December 16, 1764. He 
came to America with it in the latter year, and left the armv in July, 1775. 
— Army Lifts. 

2 J ide note 1, page 59. 


with me, and I very unlu fitatingly affured him that his fur- 
prife was nor to furprife me that the Committee had nor 
authorifed the carrying off any fpare arm-. Thar confidi r- 
ing the Blood) bulinefs which had taken place among our 
i I theren in Maffi chufi ttes w horn we were bound by the 
of honor as well as [nterefl to fupport, I deemed it my duty 
to prevent thole arms from being ufed againft them and 
conceived that it would be much more reputable for us 
employ them in the defence oi our Injured Country. 
While this queftion wa pith the Major and the 

Mayor, Mi Governed Morri made hi- appearance, And 
to m\ . ent Joined the Mayor in opinion. 

Mr Mo larion v. ' from tliar of the 

Mayo . He was a Whig ible < iions 

and tho young of Brilliant talent I o be oppofed b) Mr. 
Morri tagard me And I doubt whether all my Zeal 
and Enthufaifm would fupported me had it not b 
the arrival at that Critical moment of John Morin< v 

at Moi 
with \R • Smith ; in 

; member 
II- i in the C lmcd the 

I a minillcr pi 
France, where he remained until 

a leii in the ft .11 

licit and m<>ll ardent of the friend inal fyftem i ; and 

e died full 
John Morii and d< termined 

; " in Now \ horn in that city in 1730, and 


who was an Influencial member of the Committee and 
whole reputation for talents was as great as any in the 
city ; He came up Juft as I was repeating to Mr. Morris 
the reafbns of my conduct And Exclaimed in a Loud voice 
you are right Willett the committee have not given them 
permilTion to carry off any fpare arms. By this time the 
throng of people around us had greatly Increafed and were 
prehng in on every fide. Mr. Scott's opinion was fcarcly 
proclaimed when I turned the front Cart to the right and 
directed the Cartman to drive up Beaver Street, the other 
Carts which were Loaded with arms were made to follow 
and on the fuggeftion of Mr Scott that it would be proper 
to addrefs the troops I Jumped on a Cart, and after ob- 
ferving to them that if it was their defire to Join the Bloody 
bufinefs which was tranfacting near Bofton, we were ready 
to meet them in the Sanguin field, But that if any of them 
felt a repugnance to the unatural work of ilieding the blood 
of their Countrymen and would recover their arms and 
march forward they fhould be protected One of the fol- 

graduated at Yale College in 1746. He adopted the profeffion of the law, 
and foon became one of the leading members of the provincial bar, where 
many of the ableft minds of America were then practifmg. He was one of 
the earlieft opponents of the government, and in 1775 he was a member of 
the Provincial Congrefs ; on the 9th of June, 1776, he was appointed brigadier 
general of the provincial troops, with whom he was engaged in the battle of 
Long Ifland ; and in March, 1777, he left the fervice to become fecretary 
of ftate of New York. In 1782 and 1783 he ferved in the Continental 
Congrefs; and on the 14th of September, 1784, he died in the city of New 
York. — Loffing's "Field Book," II., p. 805. 


diers recovering his arm- and marching forward was re- 
ceived by three hearty Huzzas and r with the C 
five in number loaded with Chefts of arm- Conduced with 
the continual Huzzas of the Citizens through Beaver Si 
\ up the Broad \Va\ as tar as the Corner of John ftreet 
where their was a Ball allei and Lara Yard belonini 
Mr Abraham Nan Dyck who was a good Whig a pleas- 
ant faraciou ible man and who afterwards when the 
Britifh troops rook pofli ftion ot N r 1 .>rk was made a pris- 
oner and fuffered a long \ Cru< ( I this yard the 
arm- were depofited. Thefe arms and thofe taken poffef- 
fion of on the arrival of the account of the Battle of I.< \- 
ington were employed In the tint troops raifed in N< \\ 
5 ork under the orders <>t Congrei . The troops receiving 
no other Imp< dim< i e ad of the Committe< 
Marched to the Wharf and embarked. Altho 1 have no 
difpofition to Cenfer tin ad of the Committei Yd I was 
then and am ftill of opinion that it would ha as < .n\ 
to have made prifoners of the whole of the troop- as it was 
to take from them thefe fpare arms. But the Idea of a 
Compromife with the Britifl G nent pervaded our coun- 
cils, and i h< i ked the adoption * >r fpiriti d m< afui 

The firlt r " the New Yorl hich Alex- 

ander McD »nelj Rudolphus Ritzema, lieutenant colonel; and 

Frederick W eiflenfc 





[This letter was written by Peter T. Curtenius, the commhTary general 
of the New York line, to Colonel Richard Varick, and relates to the fo- 
called " Hickey Plot." That confpiracy, which had been organized by 
Governor Tryon from his retreat on " The Duchefs of Gordon," aimed at 
a delivery of the city and the army to the royal forces ; and its difcovery 
was productive of the moil intenfe excitement. The moll exaggerated ac- 
counts were fpread throughout the country, fuch as this letter muft have 
produced wherever it was read ; and the Provincial Congrefs of New York, 
by a committee which it had previoufly appointed " for the hearing and try- 
ing difaffecled perfons and thofe of equivocal characters," inveftigated the 
fubject in its minutias. 

As is cuftomary in fuch cafes, efpecially when the parties employed have 
been taken, as was the cafe in this plot, from the beer-houfes and " low 
places" of the country, the leaders elcaped the juft penalty of their crimes 
by becoming witnefles againft their comrades ; and of all the confpirators, 
one only, an Irifhman named Thomas Hickey, a private in the ranks of 
General Walhington's body guard, was capitally puniihed. 

Interefting accounts of the plot may be found in Gordon's " American 
Revolution" (ed. London, 1788,) II., pp. 276, 277; Marfhall's " Wafhing- 
ton," II., p. 392; Irving's " Wafhington," II., pp. 242—246; "Proceedings 
of the Committee for the Hearing," etc., June 22—26, 1776; "Minutes of 
the General Court Martial which tried Thomas Hickey," etc.] 

N York June 22^ 1776 — 


Inclofed is Cap 1 Staat's Rec t for a tent &c which pleaie 
to Endorfe on the back that you have received it. Your 
father is well who was at my houfe yefterday. Your good 

TH1- Hk'kl.V PLOT. (,- 

mother & the reft of the ramil) are alio in good health. 
ha\ ing leen them a tt w da) s ago at I [ackinfa< k. 

I id night was difcovered a moil Internal plott againft 
the lives i't (> Waftrington & Putnem &i Some ot 
the Villains conct nied are in fate cutkxh among them 

are Mr Matthews our Mayor Gilbert Forbes a Gunfmith,' 


David Mai 
1 1 . i 

intricacies of th< II . '. ing in the 

which juftifics the fufpicion that he w 
as a meflci I 


[uently releafed, ami held the off f Rcgiflrar in 
under the Britilh air 

i . . to Hull' 

era, N . 
hut I. nany 

« I • in the : 

of th 

had I I 

have taken tl 
fome call, he ..: 

W Men the pi relied and th; 

lily refulii but a Jhort 

time when Mr. im under the | I 

pathizing with him ii rmif- 

fion ti I all he knew about the m 

His pro] 1 be 

found in the report of the trial f H martial, on the 

on the 29th of the lame month; and h( aped 

punifhment probably through this m< 

H fhort thick man, with a wl 


a fifer & Drum 1 " of Gen 1 Waihingtons Guard 1 &c the par- 
ticulars are not yet Tranfpiered, the culprits are to be ex- 
amin d before congrefs this day 2 thus much is tranfpiered 
(from officers who were employed to apprehend them), 
that a great fum was offered to aflaffinate Gen ls Wafhing- 
ton & Putnam 3 , that a plan was found in their pofTeffion of 
all the fortifications, 4 That whilft the Regulars made the at- 
tack fome perfons were to blow up the powder houle 5 & 
others were to deftroy Kings brige to prevent reenforce- 
ments coming in from New England" In fhort the plott 

1 The drummer was " William Green," who appears to have been very 
active, adminiftering the oath of allegiance to the leis fortunate Hickey, and 
receiving a brokerage of " one dollar per man from Forbes for every man 
he fhall inlift." As he was the leading witnefs againft Hickey, when the 
latter was tried before the court martial, there is no doubt that he efcaped 
the punifhment which was fo juftly his due. 

The fifer was James Johnfon, but he does not appear to have taken any 
aftive part in the confpiracy. 

2 The prifoners were examined by a committee of the Provincial Con- 
grefs of New York : Philip Livingfton, John Jay, Gouverneur Morris, Jofeph 
Hallett, Thomas Tredwell, Lewis Graham, and Leonard Ganfevoort, con- 
ftituting the committee. 

3 There does not appear in evidence any fuch purpofe on the part of the 
confpirators, although rumors of the day were numerous and decided. 

4 There is no evidence of fuch " a plan" having been found on any per- 
fon ; nor is there much reafon to believe that fuch a plan exifted, or was 
neceflary, where all concerned were refidents of the city, or had been within a 
fhort time, and knew all the localities which would have appeared on fuch a plan. 

5 " The powder houfe" in queftion flood on the fouth-weftern bank of 
"The Fre/h-zuater," near the prefent junftion of Centre and Pearl ftreets. 
There is no allufion to any propofed deftruction of the magazine in any part 
of the evidence which was taken at that time. 

8 The drummer, William Green, in his teiYimony taken before the court 


was a moil damnable one & I hope that the Villains ma) 
receive a punifliment equal to perpetual Itching without 
the Ik nifit of fcratching 

I am S" \t)ur molt 

Pi ll R T. C'l RTl NIUS. 

martial which tried Hickcy, teltiried that "all thai I 

that when the I 
and then rd a (hip of war, which n Baft R 

receh G 

in their d< 
upon different : 
of the pla 

1 Peter Cm New York in 

I ' h Church, ■ i i • the time 

of his death, .: 

county. The ( urte- 

Ebcrtu . 

chant in the ci< I- \ . . 

rine Goelet, i G 

meed of praile can be n him tl 

friend oi )ii> country, and an ardei 

In 1-74, hew. member fpondence with 

the fitter coloni ythecitizei 

he was chofen on th( v. Dun; 

war he held the offic< I lary Gei eral, with the rank 1 I under 

the Provincial l y numcr I with the 




New York June 25th 1776 Tuefday 

Dear Brother 

Since my laft, Matters here, have taken a 
new Turn; for one fourth of the Citizens have been oblidg'd 

mittee and Congrefs, found in the "American Colonial Archives" 1 and "The 
Colonial Documents" publifhed by the ftate of New York, from which it appears 
that to fupply the wants of the army, he was compelled to make large advances 
from his own means and on his own credit. At one time, when the refources 
and credit of Congrefs had entirely failed, and a fupply of clothing and fhoes 
for a deftitute army was abfolutely required, Colonel Curtenius converted 
his own houfe and ftore on the corner of Liberty ftreet and Broadway, into 
money, and expended the amount of fixteen hundred pounds towards pur- 
chafing thefe neceflary fupplies for its relief; which, at the clofe of the war, 
was refunded to him by the general government, in Continental money of no 
value. It is related of him that he was unwilling to wear any article of for- 
eign manufacture, and that his wedding-fuit was of domeftic ftuff. In 1792, 
the legiflature created the office of ftate auditor, and Colonel Curtenius was 
appointed to the office, and continued to hold it until 1797, when the office 
of comptroller was created in its place. 

He died in the city of New York, of the yellow fever, in 1798, and was 
buried in the vault at the entrance of the Middle Dutch Church, on Cedar 
ftreet, where his remains refted until 1857, when, with the remains of his 
fon, General Peter Curtenius (who died in 1817), they were removed to 
Beechwood Cemetery in New Rochelle, and depofited with the remains of 
his daughter, Mrs. Jane Roofevelt, in the vault of her family. 

He left him furviving, his wife, who lived until 1806, and his children — 
General Peter Curtenius, who was appointed United States marlhal by Jef- 
ferfon, in 1806, and continued to about the clofe of the war of 1812 ; Jane 
Roofevelt, the wife of Elbert Roofevelt, late of Pelham ; Catharine Dunlap, 
the wife of the Rev. John Dunlap, late of Cambridge, Wafhington county, 

(1) See "Archives," 4th feries, vol. 2, pages n 24 and 1337 

THE HKK.I.Y l'l • -i 

to turn our. < irhrr as Volai I ■ Draught, in Confe- 

quence of the Exprefs from tin- Continental Congn 
The tirlt Batalion i- to have its Number compleated our 
or' thole that have been draughted & be commanded by 
Col: Lalher*. — Eighl the Fufileer Company, turn'd 

our Volanteers and the remainder were draughted*. I hap- 

; and Mary ai :th, unman 

.mi in the I 
ildren, \ 
Curtcnius and Frederick W. C ' heir 

children, ;s: 

the 9th the 

111., G 



his 111 . '.'•:. I 


. were 



I the " Indc] ( hen 

exiftii .1 ' ■ ( 

the G I ( the S I .the 


: the 
cum; the fame 

rm ; and I 
them men were 

\ . W 

v * R . I ■ ■ ; ' . M • • Willctt, 

Jeremiah Wool, ai : N B m. 

" I . 1 " here fpoken Captain R tzema's com- 

pany, of which II I . ! tt, and Jam \ Zandt, 

uxrc lieutenant . 1 uniform was blue, with red facings. The cat 


pen'd to be included amongft the Draughts; for the En- 
gagement I am under to the Doctor 1 , & the Care of the 
Houfe will hardly admit Me, to be a Soldier, 'tho it has 
fallen to my Lott, much lefs to turn out as Volanteer. I 
am almoft determin'd to get a Man in my Place, till fuch 
Times, as I may with Honor & Juftice to Myfelf be ab- 
folv'd from that Engagement; and then I will with all 
imaginable Pleafure repair to my Company again, and un- 

of bear (kin. On the cap and pouch were brafs plates, bearing the 
word, "Fuziliers," and encircling the laft, " Salus populi ///previa lex 

1 " The Doctor." This refers to Dr. Middleton, with whom Mr. Varick 
and others were purfuing their medical ftudies. On the 26th of April, Dr. 
Middleton, from prudential motives — he being a Tory, as will be feen from 
this letter — fuddenly failed for Bermuda, " in company with Ld. Drummond, 
John McAdam, and Harry Nicolls," leaving his houfe, library, inftruments, 
and bills receivable in the hands of Mr. Varick and his fellow-ftudent, 
Charles Mitchell, while his family removed to Flufhing, Long Ifland. Speak- 
ing of the privileges thus afforded him, Mr. Varick, in a previous letter, fays, 
"now that we had Peace, I'd engage that I would make fuch ufe of my Time, 
as would be of infinite Service to Me. But Oh the Times, the Times, have 
fuch an Effect on Me, that all my Reading and Studying prove of little Ad- 

Peter Middleton, M. D., was a native of Scotland, and a graduate of 
the Univerfity of Edinburgh. He came to New York in 1752, and very 
foon after occupied a high rank in his profeflion. In 1767, he was appointed 
ProfefTor of the Theory of Phyfic in King's College. He was the phyfician 
of Governor Tryon, and by permiflion of the Provincial Congrefs of New 
York, he was on the 13th of February, 1776, permitted to vifit his excel- 
lency on board the fhip " Duchefs of Gordon." On the 21ft of February, 
he was allowed to continue his profeffional vifits " untill the further order of 
this Congrefs." He publifhed feveral important papers on medical fubjefts, 
and died in the city of New York, in January, . 178 1, of fchirrus of the 

1 HE H1CKE\ I'i - -, 

- I 

il< rgo with becoming Affignation, & Willingneis, in c 
jun&ion with m_\ fellow Soldiers; whatever l)ut\ and Hard- 
fhip ma) be affign'd for thi m. But now the Coniideration 
of the Pledge I made of m\ Honor \ Fidelity to the 
1 ) • tor, is oi io gr< al Moment to me that it renders Part of 
im Lite uncomfortable, lead I liiould be in any one Point 
deficient in the Difcharge of mi 1) 

Laft Frida) I had the Pleafure of receiving a Letter from 
the Dod r . dated Bermuda M.i\ 13th. He makes mention 
that he intended to return in a few \V<<k-. but I am in- 
clin'd to think thai I I'll avoid coming to this City, if he 
hears how the Tories have be« n treated here, till M 
are in Some Meafure com< to a Determination. From 
what In writes \ from the Things he has 1 « it behind 
Him I lia\< conclude that he reall) intend- 

ed to return at the Time limited, notwithdanding the Inti- 
mations of thoie who pretended to know to the contrary, 
tor I u.i fatifry*d that it was inconfiftent with that Frank- 
n« 1- which the Dodor is diftinguifli'd by, that he fhould be 
guilt) of tmh Deceit towards I When to ea Ilim 
I am at a Lofs, but 1 am determin'd to fend his medical 
Books and Surgical Initruments to Hackinfack, that it I 
mould, in ihort gi t clear of the Army, and the Dod r . no- 
turn. 1 ma) have them at mj Command. & the Perufal of 

Gov' l;ion has given evident Proofs how he intends to 

1 ommiffioned captain in the Firrt F 1 I 



fight againit Us (altho' he pledged every Thing that is 
honorable to the contrary) by engaging Gill: Forbes with 
large Sums of Money, to procure Rifle Guns & Muiquets 
for Him 1 ; & likewife engaging Forbes in a Plot to affai- 
finate and maflacre his fellow Citizens"; But how happily 
it was difcover'd. This is the Rafcal in whom all Confi- 
dence was put, & in whom the utmoft Fidelity was re- 
pofed ; that he would procure Peace & be the Means of 
reinltating this Province in a ftate of perfect Happinefs, if it 
could by any Means be accomplifh'd. How has he abuied 
that Confidence ? which has perverted all the Love & Re- 
fpect he once enjoy'd amongft the Inhabitants of this Prov- 
ince, in the moft infuperable Hatred. Laft Saturday after- 
noon, by order of Congrefs, a Detachment of 14 Men 

12, 1751. In October, 1764, he was appointed lieutenant governor of North 
Carolina, and fucceeded Governor Dobbs as governor in July, 1765. In 
July, 1771, he was tranfferred to the government of New York, where his 
career was productive of no honor to himfelf or benefit to the colony. On 
the 25th May, 1772, he was appointed colonel in the army; on the 8th 
June, 1775, third major in the Guards; on the 29th Auguft, 1777, major 
general of the army; and on the 14th May, 1778, colonel of the 70th regi- 
ment of the line. Having refigned the nominal office of governor of New 
York, on the 21ft March, 1780, and returned to England, he was appointed 
lieutenant general of the army, November 20, 1782, and colonel of the 29th 
regiment, on the 16th Auguft, 1783. He died in London, January 27th, 

1 Governor Tryon had employed Forbes to make a number of rifles and 
mufkets ; and the payment for them was made through David Matthews, 
mayor of the city, as appeared from the teftimony which was offered on the 
trial of Thomas Hickey. 

2 Vide Note 3, page 68. 


/ 5 

( amongft whom I was included ) under Capt W I .ivingfton 

was i. nr overto Long-Ifland, in Purfuit of one who wa 

cufed of being concera'd in this curfed Plot We rid all Sat- 

urdaj Night, & Sundaj Morning half after three we arrived 

ar the Place we w< B il i ould nor find the 

Man: in our return we met one on the road who anfw 

in every K< i; - i the Difcripfion given of Him, which made 

I conclude that he mint he the Perfon we were in Q 

"t. We return'd late on Sunday Evening being much 

gued, having had no Sleep while our. Inquiry being 

made. fh<- Man was found innocent and acquited. This is 

the firfl Expedition an) parr of the Batalion has been on 

fince the) ha.- become Provincial Sol, lit rs; and I think the 

Fufileerj deferv< l Honor of initiating Such Expeditions. 

t apt Win. Livingfton wa i) i hod n b) a Majoi 

oi \'<«'< - <>t the offi i • oi -ii' B Major, in 

'''' ' ( Jno. R . who ha- b( en a nominal 

one fince th< Batalion has been in Pay. Wm. Wilcocks 

fucct « .1- Wm Livii ( \ Ralph Thurman who 

was a t< w Days fin e a Private, kep in as Firfl Lieut 

What large ftrides fome of the Privates in the Fufileer 

CoompJ have already taken to Popular 

n Yours mo it< ly 

John Vark k Jun" 
C'ap f . K . Varii k Albany 

Captain John F 

tain Richard \ bora in i";, and was educated for the bar. 

When . his fcrvii I , neral 



New York June 24th 1776. 

Dear Sifter 

# -::- # * -x- * 

A moft infernal Plot has lately been discovered here, 
which, had it been put in Execution, wou ; d have made 

Schuvler, and was appointed military fecretary of that officer. He remained 
in that department after the removal of General Schuyler from that command, 
until after the furrender of General Burgoyne, in 1777; when he was ap- 
pointed infpeclor general of the troops in the Highlands. After the defec- 
tion of General Arnold, Colonel Varick entered the military family of Gen- 
eral Wafhington, where he remained until the clofe of the war. 

On the reftoration of peace, he became recorder of New York ; in 1789, 
he was appointed attorney general of the ftate; and, in the fame year, mayor 
of New York, which latter office he held during twelve years. 

He was prefident of the Society of the Cincinnati during upwards of 
thirty years ; and, on the deceafe of Mr. Boudinot, he was elected prefident 
of the American Bible Society. 

He died at Jerfey City, July 30, 1831. 

1 Solomon Drowne, M. D., was born in Providence, Rhode Ifland, March 
llth, 1753. His father, Solomon Drowne, fenior, was a merchant of Prov- 
idence, and for more than half a century one of its prominent citizens. At 
the age of twenty, the fon graduated at Brown Univerfity, and foon after 
commenced the ftudy of medicine at the Univerfity of Pennfylvania. 

Dr. Drowne ferved for feveral years as furgeon in the Revolutionary Army. 
From his letters written at that period, it appears that he arrived in New 
York, June 3d, 1776; called the next day upon Dr. John Morgan, director 
general of the hofpitals ; and on the day following (the 5th) entered the fer- 
vice of the United States, as furgeon 's mate in the general hofpital. He was 
in this city at the time of its evacuation by the American troops, and re- 
mained at the hofpital among the lair., packing up the medicines, until the 
Britifhwere fo near, that the boat in which he embarked up the North River 

IHI. HICK.EY I'l.ol 

America tremble; and been as fetal a ftroke to us l 
country?) as Gun-Powd< I ifon wou'd to England, had 
it if. . , , ,1. .1. The II< llifh Confpirators \\< re a Number of 
I iries (the Mayor of j Cit) anion- them) and rhr< . oi 
G 'i Wafliington's Life-Guards. The Plan was to kill 
Generals Wafhington and Putnam, and a- many other 
commanding officers as poftible. — I fhou'd have mentioned 

them. H 

chefter, North < \ 

1 ! '.He in the 

P u ^ tfion- 

timc evince thai ,\\ m M j, 

1 York, 

he to tereft in t! 


throwing up th [ n , --- Rhode 

[Hand State H , im ;_ 

lar p 

• R 

n the 


his profeffion ii 

: irther his 

medical ftudies. Si •urn he journ< i id refided 
for nearlj 

livcred a funeral addi G tun; ami on April - fame 

year, an oration m commemoi the fettlement of thai . the 

Ohio Company. Subfequently he refumed h ; but 

in confequence of ill-health, rei ttled 

t,ir •' ume smd after the border incur: ■ In- 
dians were over, he proceeded to Union, Penn. Here he delivered a funeral 


at firft, — to let the City on fire in nine leveral Places. — To 
lpike up the Cannon : Then to give a Signal to the Alia 
and Ships expefted; — and blow up the magazine. They 
had a large Body of Men, which were to attack ours amidit 
their Confulion. The whole was difcovered (as I am in- 
formed) by a ferg c of y e Guards, whom they wanted to 
take into the Plot, and who, having got what he cou'd 
from them, difcovered all to the General. The Drummer 
of y e Guards was to have itabb'd y e General. The pretty 

addrefs on General Wafhington, " in conformity to the Proclamation of the 
Prefident of the United States," February 22, 1800. In 1801, he retraced 
his fteps to Rhode Ifland, and fettled in the town of Fofter, where he pafTed 
the remainder of his days engaged in profeffional and agricultural purluits, 
and in the cultivation of his tafte for botany and elegant letters. In 1811, 
he was appointed profeflbr of Materia Medica and Botany in Brown Univer- 
fity, and gave courfes of le&ures in that inftitution for many years. The 
Rhode Ifland Medical Society (of which Dr. Drowne was fubfequently vice- 
prefident), in 1819, chofe him a delegate to the convention which formed 
the National Pharmacopoeia. At the requeft of the citizens of Providence, 
on February 23d, 1824, he delivered an "oration in aid of the caufe of the 
Greeks," whofe unequal ftruggle with the Turks was at that time calling 
forth the fympathy and afliflance of this country. During the fame year, 
he publifhed a " Compendium of Agriculture, or the Farmer's Guide in the 
moll: efTential parts of Hufbandry and Gardening;" and on feveral occafions 
he delivered the annual addrefTes before the State Agricultural Society, in the 
organization and proceedings of which he bore an active part. 

Dr. Drowne was diflinguifhed not only in his profeffion but as a lecturer 
and writer on botany, of which fcience he was an enamored votary from 
early youth; and his occafional orations, addrefTes, and literary and fcientific 
papers, a large number of which have been publifhed, won for him a high 
reputation as a finifhed and erudite fcholar. He died February 5th, 1834. 

The prefent efficient Secretary of the National Fire Infurance Company 
of the city of New York (Henry T. Drowne) is his grandion. 


Fellows are in fafe Cuftody, and I hope I (hall be abl< 
'/we you a b< tter account of them in m\ next. This Morn- 
ing a large Guard went to r.ik < • two hundred Tories who 
arc under Arm- nor \< r\ for from this C 

^ lurs, 

Solomon Drowne. 

LI WI Dl«)\\ v I'R(»\ ID! N< 

G i ; 

I) . Billy, 

ft ft ft -::- ft ft 

Ir is now almo M 1 but a little while (in« i I 

returned to ni\ Chamber from carrying Medicine n> one of 

William D .April 17th, 1 

the broth< 1 
intcrcll in the 

• r, in 
Colonel B 
and continued with the 1 In January, 

year . R 

[(land; and in 17 the rank of captain. 

Mr. I> :i adventurous fpirit, which led him at a later pe- 

riod to embark, the privai that were 

fitted nut from N . and whicl nded with 

the enemy's armed veflels, thereby rem! 1 

In his cruilea in the privateer fliip " Genei W 

tl . "B . he kept private journals, in 


y e Wards I have y e Care of, and applying a Poultice to a 
Man's foot, over which a Gun Carriage run Yefterday, in 
the Battle with y e Ships ; for a further account of which 
fee Sally's Letter : — So you may judge how much time I 
have to write. * 

I heartily congratulate you, my dear Brother, on being 
an Inhabitant of y e Free an Independant States of Amer- 
ica. I herewith fend you a Gazette which contains y e Dec- 
laration ; and alio an Extract of a Letter from Philadel- 
phia, which, if you have not had yet, fhou'd be glad you 
wou'd {how Tommy Ruflell. 

The Declaration was read, agreeable to general Orders, 
at y e Head of y e Brigade, &c. this week ; and loud Huz- 
zas exprefT'd the approbation of y e Freeborn Bands. 

The Night following, the famous gilded equeftrian ftatue 
of y e Britilli King, in this City, was levelled with y e Duft : 
his head taken off, and next morning, in a Wheel-Barrow 
carried to his Excellency's Quarters, I was told. There is 
a large Quantity of Lead about it, which is to be run into 
Bullets to deftroy his Myrmidons. I fuppofe you have 

which were noted down many occurrences of hiftorical intereft. While on 
board the Belifarius, during the fummer of 1781, he was taken prifoner, car- 
ried to New York, and confined for three months in the foul and recking 
hold of the Old Jerfey prifon fhip. Here his health fuffered extremely, until 
in November of that year he was permitted to be abfent awhile at Newport, 
on parole. But the feeds of difeafe had become too deeply rooted in his 
previously robuft conftitution by this fevere imprifonment, ever to be erad- 
icated. He rallied from a painful illnefs only to linger along, with enfeebled 
health, until Auguft, 1786, when he died. He was buried at Providence. 



heard <>i j Execution or one of the General's Guards, 
cerned in y* hellifh Plot, difcovered here fome time : 
There was .1 vafl Concourfe of People to i- < \ poor Fellow 

hangi d. 

14th I heard this Evening, thai i . Ho* had fent .1 1 
with a l.« tter din fted to G . and that it 

was returned unopened becaufe he gave him not his proper 
title; — tho' j Capt" that brought it faid its Conti nts w« • oi 
the utmoft Importance, and thai I Ho* was very iorr\ 
he had nor arrive .1 .1 few D mer (Pi rhaps b< fore In- 

dependence was declared, for 'tis faid he is inverted with 
unlimited Power.) This ma) learn him a little Manners. 
Well; two Shi] \ ; • ■ lei . N. River; Communica- 
tion with Canada by water cut < Something important 
will turn up fbon 


I am \<tn tired, and it is paft M 

Writ often to your Friend \ Broth< r 

S iLOMON Drown 1 


[No form of record retains fo much of freflinefs and lafting intereft as that 
contained in private correfpondence. Coming from the very times and the 
very fpot which we are confidering, it embodies the fpirit of the hour with 
a fidelity which the more pains-taking and correcl hiftorian labors in vain to 
feize. The letters from which the following extracts are taken, were written 
in New York city at that anxious period which, following clofe upon the 
events of Lexington and Bunker Hill, preceded the battle of Long Ifland 
and the confequent evacuation, in September, 1776, of New York city by 
the American forces, who were no more to enter it until its final Evacua- 
tion by the Britifh in November, 1783.] 


New York July 29th 1 775. 1 

Dear Brother 

You will fee by the Warrants who are 
nominated officers for your County 2 , it is very likely we 
iliall raife an additional number of Troops befides the 3000 
now Raized We Expect all diligence will be ufed in Re- 
cruiting, that the Regiments may be formed immediately 
Lait Sunday about Two oclock the Generals Wailiing- 
ton Lee & Schuyler arrived here 3 they Croffed the North 

1 By referring to General Wafhington's letter to " the members of the 
Continental Congrefs, Philadelphia," dated "New York, 25 June, 1775," 
it will be feen that this date is incorrect. 

2 Dr. Tappan belonging to Poughkeeplie, in Dutchefs county, this remark 
muft refer to that county. 

3 The lubjecl ol the reception of General Wafhington at New York, 
while on his way to Bolton, was one of unufual intereft. 

COR [N i-- 

Riverat Hoback' & Landed at Coll Lifpenards' there v 
8 <>r io Companies under Arms all in Uniforms who 
Marched our to Lifpenards, the proceflion began from 
there thus, the Companu - tint, c ■..• two of Con- 

tinental ( next General O ct& a Compan) 

oi 'I from Philadelphia Who Came with l G neral 
brought up the H< ar tin re w< re an innumerable Company 
«>t people Men Women \ Children prefent 

"i the evenii G rryon* landed as in the news 

paper I walked with m\ Friend G Clinton all the 

waj to I.ii|>< nards Who is no home 

( • 

i < , 

rail mem ; 

I 1 

ft the Ph | 

turned the n it return 

here on Tu 

1 ' '■ •" ' u • ■ I 1 in the i ( 

tarn \i 

t,lc limc it numbei 

the refidem - 11.11 \\ ;'lacc. 

< I tine, in his " A York G 
either of the arrivals refen 
June, gives an .•■ 

* Subfequently Governor ( i 


I am Very Well hope all Friends i'o, the Torys Catey 1 
Writes are as Violent as ever, ! poor Insignificant Souls, 
Who think themfelves of great importance The Times 
will foon ihew. I fancy that they muft quit their Wicked 
Tenets, at lead: in pretence and (hew fair, Let their Hearts 
be as Black as Hell. Go on, be fpirited, & I doubt not, 
Succefs will Crown our Honeft endeavours for the fupport 
of our Juft Rights and Privaledges 


Greenwich 3 Nov 15, 1775. 

■Jf- •"- •"- vj -Jf -.v 

Every office iliut up almolt but Sam. Jones's who will 
work for 6/ a day & Live accordingly — All Bufinefs itag- 
nated the City half deferted for fear of a Bombardment 
— a new Congreis elected — Thofe for New York you 
will fee by the papers are changed for the better — All 
itaunch Whigs now — How it is with the Convention I 
know not We have [not rec d ] Returns — Yefterday the 
new Congrefs was to meet but I believe they did not 

1 " Catey," wife of Gilbert Livingfton, and filter of the Dr. Tappan to 
whom this letter was written. 

'•' Subsequently General John Morin Scott, for a biographical fketch of 
whom, fee note 2, page 63. 

3 He refided in the feat fince known as " The Hermitage" and "Ike 
Temple of Health," which remained, until a recent date, in Weft Fortv- 
third ftreet, between the Eighth and Ninth avenues. 


make a Houf< ■ ■- ni\ D i) I mufl not attend it nor 

an) other Bufinefs in fome Weeks; but I hope the) will 
be miftaken — Nothing from t'other fide of the Water but 
a fearful looking lor of Wrath— Our continental petition 
• probabl) contemned the Bulk of the nation (it is 
faid ag* I l and a bloody Campai^ v Bui 

let us be prepared for the word — Who can prize lit* with- 
out Liberty "' It is a Bauble onl) fit to be thrown away. 


Coufen William 

* « * * * * 

i (hall Now indever to (m<- you fome acounl how 
matters arc hear Now on the i Inftanl a rived Cornel 
Water Berr) whit about looo nun the \ I- lanl arived 
^00 minel men from N 1 gland a Number oi pepol 
r,< .in to move this l)a\ our of town Bui on the J In- 
ftant in the morning arived ( - Clinton* in th< Mer- 

1 ■ ■ mber 

ut a quo- 
rum was ir>t prcfcnt until l> 

•■ A regimei - mmanded I 

— (. I ■ 

I . . I: : . HSS.) 

to the Earl of Dartmouth, 

- r Henry Clinton, « 
miral Parker in lii- movement i ina. 


cury Man of Waar from Boften & tranfport Brig the fame 
Day arived Generel Lee 1 Whit 300 men it is imbof- 
feble to Defcrib the Convufen 2 that this City was in on 
acount of the Regelers Being Com 3 fome faid ther was 15 
fail Below & would Be up the Nex Day the 5 Inften 
Nothing materel Hapned pepel moving as fas as poffeble 
they could the 6 Inften the River full of ife the manawar 
had her Cable cut by it but Let Go a Nother Ancker 4 the 
7 Inftant Lord Sterling" arived whit 1000 men from the 

1 General Wafhington, having obtained intelligence of the fitting out of a 
fleet at Bofton, and of the embarkation of troops from there * * gave 
orders to General Lee to repair, with fuch volunteers as were willing to join 
him and could be expeditioufly raifed, to the city of New York, with a de- 
fign to prevent the Englifh from taking pofleflion of New York and the North 
River, as they would thereby command the country and the communication 
with Canada. — Memoirs of Charles Lee, Efq. (London, 1792), pp. 12, 13. 

2 " ConvuferC — confufion. 

3 "This City is in Terror and confufion : One half of its inhabitants have 
withdrawn with their effecls, hundreds without means to fupport their fami- 
lies." — Governor Tryon to Earl of Dartmouth, 8th February, 1776. 

4 "The Afia and Phcenix have been obliged to draw very near the Wharfs, 
having been much diftrefled by the floating cakes of ice." — Govei nor Tryon 
to Earl of Dartmouth, February 8, 1776. 

William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, was born in the city of New York, 
in 1726; fucceeded his father as furveyor general of New Jerfey; and en- 
tered into trade. He accompanied General Shirley as his aide and fecretary; 
with whom he alfo vifited Europe in 1756-7. He was appointed a brigadier 
general in the Continental Army, on the firft of March, 1776 — having pre- 
vioufly commanded the Firft regiment of the New Jerfey line. 

He was captured at the battle of Long Ifland ; was fubfequently in 
command in New Jerfey, where he rendered effective fervice; was en- 
gaged at the Short Hills, Middlebrook, Brandywine, Germantown, and 
Monmouth; and during the entire war was actively engaged, doing good 

jerfeys 1 tru 8 1- tant added X< \\ Lil moving for 

about 3 oclock arived a fliip Whit 2oo Soulders from B - 
ton ir is impofTeble to Defcrib th< ( i mation the 
Weoman Where in as a Report pravail that 19 (hip where 
B ow however ther was no moor the 9 & 10 In 
N tthing materel hapned pepol moeving as it" it was the 
I Da) as Gennen I was to Begin to intrenfli the 12 

Inftant the 1 1 Inftant was a Remarkable Day Ga Beinc 


plas all along th( 1 River fo as to prevent an) perfons 
( ■ "t tin V>< taik th< Guns of the) B 

witii u. 1- Conduded whit fo much fecrerf the (hip 

Did N01 h< till 4 dock in the aft< N When 

the) Imedetly hauld of in the River where the) ai \ 
whitout firing one Gun the Same Da) failed the Mercur) 
M inawar whit ( ! ( B \ th< 1 tranfport 

for the wefward as ir is faid w( an Now under No 
t- ai from the (hip N we have mi ins fuffift nt 

for them Nov 12 1 ml pepol now Begin to ftop mov- 
ing our ramel) arc all in York \- 1 B 1 .ill 1. nd them to 
IJrwnlu ick it W( fe am 1 ) . 

N. T>. W< an Now a c it) of Waar 

fervicc for his country. II 
(even j 

I to yefterd ipanies 

arrived here, and more are expected."- C 1 

Earl of D 



New York March 28th 1776. 

Dear Brother 

I give you & every friend to Liberty Joy on the 
Regulars being drove from the Town of Bolton 1 , it was a 
Neit they ought to have been from fome time ago, but all 
for the better perhaps, they would have ketcht us unpre- 
par'd then, but now we are and will be io well fortifyed, as 
to give them a Scrag they will not RelifTi very well — Their 
are various conjectures with regard to Regulars leaving that 
Town, the Tories here I can fee are much fhagrin'd at it, 
and pretend to make the belt excufes poffibley for them, 
for my part I cannot help thinking but neciffity drove 
them from it, this is as glaring a proof as can be I think, 
that is that General Howe gave orders to Attack our lines, 
but Two Thoufand of his Men refuf'd (which guefs mult 
be the Men which were Order'd Under Lord Piercy, to at- 
tack Dorchefter Neck 2 ) faying they had not forgot the 
Butchering of Bunker Hill, they tied io precipately, that 

1 General Howe and the main army had evacuated the town of Bofton on 
the 17th of March, 1776. The reader will find a very complete account, 
both of the fiege and the evacuation of Bofton, in Mr. Frothingham's " Siege 
of Bofton," publiihed in Bofton in 1851. 

- This paragraph probably refers to the movement of twenty-five hundred 
men, under the gallant Earl Percy, on the fifth of March, 1776. They were 
afTembled at Caftle William, in boats, and were ordered to move againft the 
American lines, under cover of the night. Thefe preparations had been 

the Ofl had I' ir their linnen \ Wat< In - in th« i r Cham- 

bers, they will nor conic to This Town believe me rill they 
arc largely Reinforced So much for thofe 1 1< 1 1 Hounds 


I )< .ir Broth( 

-::- •::- -::• -::■ 

In in\ la't I notit'u d to ) ou the In' 
tions ot the i Bata ion, 1 n aj no\i ii form you of what 
the) have (ii omplifh'd. They have founded a B 

Work round the Hofpital & almofl compleated it- com- 

ieen from the \ 

the people in the nei| 

which continu< 

I . ncral 
I I . }CO. 

1 V\ 

1 The Hofpital oi nated in an organization of three phyl 

— D"." Midd ton, John [ones, 

whofe n the thir- 

teenth Ju i the buildii 

feventh of July, i - . | :, the 

(till untinilhed building was nearly deftroyed by fire. 

'The ( . jo toward rebuilding the edifice ; but 

the war which t'"!luwed prevent mpletion until the rhird of January, 

1791, when the firlt patients were admit I 


poi'ed folely of Sod & Dirt — The Thicknefs of it about 10 
Feet, & about 7 Feet high, with a Ditch of 12 Feet wide, 
& 7 deep, furrounding the whole. — This will afford a fate 
Retreat, from the Fire of fmall Arms. — I have had the 
Honor of working at it 3 or 4 Days, fince I enter'd the 
Fiffileer Comp>' under the Command of Cap 1 Livingiton. 1 — 
The Fortification originates its Name from the Founders of 
it, to wit, the i ic Bat n . — There is another Structure erected 
on what formerly was called Byard's Mount, but now is 
moitly term'd Bunckers Hill 2 & which when finithed will 
be a moil compleat Fort, and will command the whole 
City. — I fine, every Ship is, & every Avennue leading from 
the Water will be ftrongly fortified, to prevent our worft 
of enemies from landing; & poffeiTing themfelves of the 
City, if they iliould ever attempt it.— But the Number of 
Continental Troops that are to be ifation'd here, will I hope 
prove fufficient to deter them from fuch an Attempt. There 
are great Numbers daily arriving here, from all Quarters; 
and it is univerfally thought, we will in a iTiort Space ot 
Time, have an Army of 15,000 Men collected here for the 
Prefervation of this City. — The People here do not feem 
now fo apprehenfive of the Soldiers landing, fince the Ac- 
count of the happy Fate of our Enemies evacuating the 
City Bofton, on which I congratulate you & every other 
Friend of Liberty. — The News of this happy Event feem'd 

1 Vide Note 1, page 72. 

■ Near the prefent corner of Broadway and Grand itreet. / ide page 28. 


to infpire the Breads of ev< r) Friend ro America with new 
Hopes of Conq ■ with gi Vrdor to refcue this 

once flourifhing Country from the Shakles & Oppreffions 
o< .1 Britifh Parliament —The Ships of War are the only 
Tools we now apprehend an) \ Danger from, fince it 
is out ot our Power to cope wirli thofe thundering Hell 
Hound-. I fome pri Report that the minifterial 

Mercinaries are now fortifying Bedlows [fland, affifted b) 
many Countrymen, it this can be relied on I doubt bur 
we will have a imall Schirmifh there loon. 


\ i U ^ - • \ I . . : • 

I ) ai Bn ''!i« r 

• • •::- -::- 

Tin I'c.-:. an n i\\\* ed to tin- Nea flity 
oi delivering up their Arm. S n Oath, thai they'll 

• ever) Attempt made b) thi Britifh Minim*) to vio 
the rights V Libertii \ ni ri< a, or at l< afl not affifl them 

in any ot theii Machinations.' Then an feverall 

1 The Continents I the fourteenth": M "re- 

commended" to the feveral 1 the " difaffecled" within mch 

• he difarmed; and to the arming of the ti 

which fuch colonies m nto the fen 

the twenl :'errcd thi 

: " recommend 
members — Meflrs. Tredwell and Moore — who, on the next day, rej 
cd a ■ me int.. effeel ; with the 


who refute to take the Oath; leaft they fliould perjure 
themlelves. — From this it is infer'd that they have ngned 
& {'wore to fome Decleration; And the Congrefs has ta- 
ken the Method of fecuring all fuch Perfons in Priion, for 
yefterday John Roome Att y & Auguftus Van Home was 
carried to Jail on that Ace 1 & doubtlefs there will be many 
more ere long. — There is fome Proipect now of difcovering 
all thofe vile Rafcals, that have already paff'd too long un- 
noticed, & have enjoy'd greater Benifits than their bleed- 
ing Countrymen. — There will foon be a flop to this Tory 
Faction. * * * * * 

The Granadiers 1 have gain'd themfelves great Honor, by 
their ereding the circular Battery nominated after them ; 
For they rec d the Thanks of Gen 1 Sterling" in a moll: pub- 
lick Manner. — It is of real Satiffadion to Me to think that 
a few of our Citizens have behaved in fuch a Manner, as 
has redounded to their Honor, And hope it may prove a 

tional provifion that the parties who were to be thus difarmed should alfo be 
compelled to fign a paper called an " affbeiation," promifing " to defend by 
arms, the United American Colonies againft the hoftile attempts of the Britifh 
fleets and armies, until the prefent unhappy controverfy between the two 
countries {hall be fettled" — a promife which, when made, was generally made 
under ftrefs of circumftances, and was obeyed only, as might have been ex- 
pected, while the peculiar circumftances which produced the promife con- 
tinued to operate. 

1 This company wore a uniform of blue, with red facings, and was com- 
manded by Colonel John Lafher, as captain, William Hyer, as firft lieutenant, 
Abraham Brafher, as fecond lieutenant, and Abraham Van Dyck, as third 

'-' Vide. Note 5, page 86. 

CORK, IN i775-7< 

Means to clear up the Imputation V Contempt this c 
was held in In ionic of the \< ighbouring Coloi 


D Bn tther 

•::- ■::- -::■ * * ft 

Time will hardly admit n> add any news. Coll. P - 
nam tells me that there w . S irmed Veflels at the 

hook yefterday, Small \ I ( have laid a 

plan to block up "i' Harbour, B waiting to la\ tl 

plan bei G W >n, \\ ho 1 I back from 

Philadelphia thi I I.I french Veflel 



I I ■ the 



the ; 

minifti I 

■; the tirlt grand mafter of the 
if the foul I I 

died in M 

"( nee at Pli 

vile with them "ii the (ii • 

may be proper 


ived here yeiterday & they lay five more are on there way 
near by, Loaded with, Brandy Indigo, Sugers, Molaffes &c 
— We Expeft a fleet & army Here i'oon, our Batteries are 
fo farr Ready that I am In hopes they will meet with a 
much warmer Reception than they think for, what other 
news We have you will find in the prints 

* * * * * * 

P. S. I have got you the only pr Piftels to be found I 
hope they may lute you the price is 80/ p r I lend them by 
the bearer 


New York June 4th 1776. 

Hond Sir, 

Amidit a good deal of hurry and Noife I fet 
down to write you a few Lines (tho' late at Night) by M r J. 
Brown, who fets away Tomorrow. 

We arrived here yefterday, * * * a little after ten. 

We waited on Doct r Morgan 1 to Day, and were kindly re- 
ceived. He marked out a Courle of Duty for us at the 
Hofpital which will keep us very buly. The College is 
occupied for the General Hofpital. It is a very elegant 
Building, and its Situation pleafant, and falubrious. We 

" Ordered, That General Wafliington attend in Congrefs to-morrow." — 
Journals of Congrefs, May 23, 1776. 

1 Doclor John Morgan, who was Director General and Phvfician-in-chief 
to the General Hofpital of the American army. 

CORRESPOND] NCE l\ 1775 l > - 

were fhown the Apartment allotted us in it to D.i\. which 
we lik<- \<t\ well; and expefl to move from the place we 
[uir up at, romonow. I have a Lifl oi Medicines, pur- 
chafed hen for \ Continental Hofpital, to copy for D 
Morgan, which obliges me to conclude. 

1 ,-""• .- 


\ . 1 kk June . 

Dear Brother 

The Tories h< ire feem'd to < \uh in their Opinion, thai 
(. neral Wafhington wa gon< to Philadelphia in Order to 
refign hi- Commiflion, if th< (. declai^d tor an In- 

dependence. Ir was even currently reported, thai he was 
gone with that View. How was tin Torie's Exultations 
\ Wil ■ fruftrated on hi- Return, the) can make no 
Repl) to what the) .ill< dg< d at hi- Departui 

To what low Means do our Enemies alread) (loop, V 
what unjuftinable, & mean Methods do the) purfue to ob- 
tain tin [nteligence tin \ daih n "t our Motion-: tor 
yefterda) wa- taken up in this City, and carried to Goal, a 
Negro Fellow who belong'd to Cot Jenning, \ a fre< Ne- 
gro, who had been employed in a Peauger, to carr) Pro- 
vilions on Board of the Governors Ship, from lure \ fuch 

1 / '/.. N 
( Governor Tryon was, at that period, on board the fliip /' 

don, at anchor in the har 


Inteligence as they, & their Accomplices in this City could 
colled, for the Information of that vile Rascal, on Board 
the Dutches of Gordon. There is a Letter now in Town 
in the Name of Pitt,' attefted as a true Copy from the Orig- 
inal by W. T. which protefts againft the Proceedings of the 
Colonies, & imports that as long as we contended for Lib- 
erty, he was our Friend, but fince we had levy'd open War 
againft his Majefty, every Sinew, & every Nerve fTiou'd be 
exerted to fupprefs Rebellion, & reduce his Subjects to a 
Senfe of their Duty. It is believ'd, it has been contriv'd & 
fabricated on Board of the Dutches of Gordon (fince it 
firii came from there, to be diftributed about by the To- 
ries;) under the Name of Pitt, in Order to difcourage the 
People. It is to be hoped however, that it will not be at- 
tended with fuch evil Confequences, as might be apprehend- 
ed from it if really true, But the Veracity of it is iufpected 
on Grounds of Probability — Thefe are raoft unhappy Times, 
when we are reduced to fuch Straits ; as that Perfons, who 
were once confidered as Patriots to their Country, will de- 
fcend fo far beneath the Character, & Dignity of Gentle- 
men, as to purfue the Vileft of Meafures, & conlider 
nothing to mean to act if they can only perpetrate their 
wicked, & deteitible Defires. 

1 Lord Chatham had been an early and devoted friend to the American 
Colonies ; and fuch a letter as that which is here defcribed would have been 
very beneficial to the royal cauic. 



\ . \ 

Dear Brother 

« ■• 

\\'« I [ad fome Grand Toorj Rides in this Cit) this wet k. 
& in particular Yefterday, S»\< of them ware handeld 
\<rr\ Roughl) B C'.i!H>t t rvi^rh th< s »n Rails, 

there Cloaths Tore from there becks ami then Bodies 
prirrv well Mingled with the ilmt. Amongft them wan 
c - Capt. Hardenbrook,' Mr. Rapelje, \l .Queen the 
Poticar) V LefHy the barber. There is hardl) .1 toor) fat e 
to be feen this morning Our Congrefs publifhed a Re- 
folve on tin () Exprefling then difaprobation, tho it 

might have procedid from .1 Proper Zeal tor the liben 
oi Amarican freedom & defire that ir ma) C< ife, \ thai .1 
mode for punilhing fuch Offenders will foon be adopted 
tor tlii- Colon}' 

* * * -x- •::■ 

"— 1 k dangerous, 

and, till v. .. ir to the humane re: 

Moore's "D '■■ 

rheophilus Hardenbn 
R 1 R 

■ 1 . Putnam and Mifflin having complained to this ( 

the riotous and diforderly conducl of nuj 
which had led, this 
it was thereupon 

" /,' . 1'h.u this ^ means approve ol the riots thai have 

happened this day ; they flatter themk ver, that they have pro- 

ceeded from a real retard to liberty and a deteftation ol thofe pel 

1 ) 



General Hospital, N. York June 17th [1776J 

Hon d Sir, 

At length I am fomewhat fettled to what I 
have been fince my arrival here. The Ouarter-Mafter of 
y e Hoipital and his Wife reached here a few Days pair, 
from Bolton ; lince which we live in a very elegant Man- 
ner, compared with what we did. As there happened to 
be fome Vacancies in the Hofpital, I have as good a Berth 
as I cou'd have wiihed for. (The fame as M r Binney's.) 1 
We draw Twenty Dollars a Month, and Two Rations P r 
Day. I have enjoyed a good ftate of Health fince I have 
been here. We have been clofely employed a good part 
of y e time, affifting in putting up Medicines for thirty 
Chefts. By the Paper I fend inclofed, you will fee we 
exped an Attack this way foon. 'Tis thought they will 
attempt landing on Long-Ifland, by fome ; — by others, that 
they will, with a fair breeze, run by the forts, up North 
River and land. We have things in pretty good Readi- 

by their language and conduct, have difcovered themfelves to be inimical to 
the caufe of America. To urge the warm friends of liberty to decency and 
good order, this Congrefs affures the public that effedual meafures fhall be 
taken to fecure the enemies of American liberty in this colony ; and do re- 
quire the good people of this city and colony to defift from all riots, and 
leave the offenders againit. fo good a caufe to be dealt with by the conftitu- 
tional reprefentatives of the colony." — Journal of Provincial Congrefs, 
June 12, 1776. 

1 This Mr. Binney is the gentleman to whom Dr. Drowne often refers when 
fpeaking of " us" and "we." 

COR IN 177 j l)() 

nefs at the Hofpital tor the horrid I of a genera V - 

rion. I hope ir may not come to rhi-: but that the fchemes 
oi our Enemies may be fruftrated. 

A parr of j Artillerj Reg 1 and a Number of Volui 
have gone upon an Expedition down \ r River to 3 Nar- 
rows, I beli< watering place from \ Aria's 
Mm. or drivi 5 R< g . from their fort ar v Light-Houfe, 
and d< itro) it. 

There ha- latel) be< 1 I deal of attention paid the 

I ies in this (. Some oi thi e b< 1 n carried 

thro 1 v - Rails, S 

RICH \k:> V tRICK. 

\ '1 
Dear Brother 

* •::■ N * 

^ our Sinn - I could nor git tor jrou on account 
oi th( A irm on the arival of th< fleet, finc< which air 
all bufinefs in town is knocked up the 1 now lays 

verrj Qui* I at th< v P Reanfbrce- 

ment from England When the} ia\ they (hall litth R 

' The fleet from II Bricifh army und< r Sir ^ 

liam Howe, ar- I ! and the 

re debarked on the fecond and third of |tilv. 
\ ' [uaranrine. 

1 Then on ii t N i the twelfth of 


our Bateries We as little Regard them, Our men are 
in high Sperrits and Ready to meet them at any Hour the 
town fwarms with people, I doubt not But our army Con- 
fifts of at leaft twenty thoufand men, & the Country about 
us verry Willing to lend us there afiftence, I am verry Sorry 
to hear fo much of the bed fuccefs of the Army in your 

quarter," I am afraid it will Be Attended with bed Confi- 



General Hospital N. York July 13th [1776] 

Dear Sitter Sally, 


I fuppoie you will have heard before this reaches you, 
that y e Fleet has arrived here, and lies in fair view of y e 
City. Yefter-Afternoon two Ships & three Tenders came 
to fail, and flood towards y e City. They had not got fairly 
within (hot, before our Forts & Batteries began to fire at 
them; — and, what was mortifying, they kept fteadily along 
feemingly regardlefs of our conftant fire, till they got almoft 
abreaft of our Works ; then gave us a few palling Brod- 
fides, and, with a fine Breeze, failed ftatelyly up North 
River, I believe unhurt by us. 

But, (hocking to tell, we had fix fine fellows killed & 4 

1 The Northern army had retired from Canada, and taken poft at Crown 
Point. It was very fickly ; and great numbers were fuffering from the 


or five wounded at our Grand Battery, thro' mi ( lefs- 
nefs, or Ignoram For, ting to fwab \ Cannon at 

all, or doing ir improperly, the catridges rook fire, and \ 
fetal Accidents enfin d. 

The Wounded wen brought to j Hofpital, ami this 
day one of them had !,i- Arm (all \ Bon< of which \ 
broken) taken oil. \l< wa tirit to the new or c 

I I ilpital, which ha- hi < n intend* d \ fitu d tor \ w ound< d : 
where I now attend him to be r<ad\ it v ltump fhou'd 
bleed afftefli. One Ball came into y Hofpital Yard, (truck 

ground at a littli I) from us, and bounded thro' 

y board fence I believe it was a 12 pound fhott I think 
our fituation a- much < xpofed, as an) in tin City. 

I am glad our AfTembly have allowed of Inoculation, 
and hope nou \ Bro' Bill will not defer receiving 

, () . !'■ '\ 1 tak< n b) chance ha i \> 

Bane of tens of Thoufands; when it comes To mar you, 
cloathed in Gentlenefs, all 1 riblenefs caft afide. 

My Sifter, 1 ou, and if \ Family, 

that ye li\r in a Fre< and Independent Country. The 
I fnited Stat< 1 >t Am< ri< a. 

* * -x- ■:■■■ ■::- •:■:- 

There exifl :rable difference i n well informed 

phyfici ttion. 



New York 17th July 1776 

D r Brother 

* * * * * # 

We Expect An Attack from the menwarr 
Every moment, the troops I imagin wonte Come to make 
any attempt until they are reinforced, Lord How is arrived 
but brought none, 1 two Menwarr have gone up the North 
River laif f'riday as high as tappen 2 they met with Confid- 
erable damage, 3 & yeiterday they have gone up to Haver- 
ftraw, 4 I fency they meen to go up as high as poughkeepfy 
to diftroy our two Veflels a building 5 (if they do I am in 
hopes our foorts In the Highlands 6 will lave them the 
truble of Coming Back, Our Army is in high Sperrits and 
are all Williing for an Attack from the Emmy, We Rec d 
No damage from the Enimies fiering laft fryday 7 Only one 
Cow killed which made good market Beef But fix of our 

1 Lord Howe, in the Eagle, arrived at New York on the evening of the 
twelfth of July ; and the reinforcements did not arrive until the twelfth of 

2 The Rofe and the Phcenix, with three tenders, moved up the river on 
the afternoon of the twelfth of July. — General WafhingtorCs Letter to the 
Pre/? dent of Congrefs, July 12, 1776. 

3 The amount of damage really done was probably fmalier than this letter 
would appear to indicate. They fufFered no apparent injury. — Sparks' 
Wafhington, III., p. 475, note. 

4 " Sparks' Wafhington," III., p. 475, note. 

Two frigates were then on the flocks at Poughkeepfie. 

6 Forts Montgomery and Clinton. 

7 / hie pages 100, 101. 


train got killed & four or five Wounded from being over 
Zealous, nor taken proper rime to fwadd the guns, Wi 
hear Near fburty got killed on board the {hips' — two fl 
have Bean fent by Lord to George Wal ington \ \ 

\ Which ware both fent back, Or Readier Refufed 
nor being prop' : I am happ) Your Northern 

Arm) has made lb fafe a Retreat I am in Great hopes we 
lliall be a match tor them I I 


I)i ar Brother 

^ on would be furprifed to i< what Num- 
ber of Empt) liouh - In r« are in this place, Verr) few of the 

inhabit- I li .iin in town that arc not I in tin S 

vice 1 * 

( i arations are makinj \\ th Shiv* r de 

'■' i ■■ and Vefli up the Channi I. \ fundn fire 

' There is little r 
reprefented. Three wen 
is unknovt n. 

Genera] \\ Congrcfs, July 14 and 

I". !- 

1 OO. 

' / ,... Butler's Statement. 1 / MSS.) 

" I am preparing fome obftru funnel n< 

works at the up] I the ifland." — C 


(hips, preparing two Brigs are Ready, 1 fomthing great will 
Be attempted loon, five or leven Rogallies are already come 
down from the Eaftward two are built here that will carry 
one 32 Pounder Each, One of them quite and the other 
Nearly finifhed, 2 the fleet Remains Verry Quiet, But the 
men of the two menwar Up the River have a fmall bruili 
Once in a While with our Guards long the River 3 


New York Auguft 9th [1776. J 
Hon d Parents, 

Yeiier-Morning before two o'Clock we were alarmed : — 
however, it turn'd out no more, than that a Number of 
the Enemy's Boats came up towards y e City. Surely we 
have no defpicable Enemy to deal with; — brought up to 

Congrefs, 25 July, 1776. See alfo his letter to the fame gentleman, Auguft 
5, 1776, and "General Heath's Memoirs," Auguft 1. 

A tolerably complete account of thefe obftruftions has been written by 
Mr. Ruttenber; and publilhed by J. Munfell, in his " Hiftorical Series." 

1 A Mr. Anderfon had propofed a plan for the deftruclion of the enemy's 
fleet by means of firefhips ; and he had been employed, under the direction 
of General Wafhington, in conftrufting them. 

■ Vide General Wafhington's letter to Prefident of Congrefs, July 29, 
1776 ; and " General Heath's Memoirs," July 25 and 28, and Auguft 1. 

3 "Aug. 3. About noon there was a brifk cannonade up the Hudfon, be- 
tween the American row-galleys and the Britifh fhips : the former had two 
men killed; two mortally, and 12 flightly wounded. The Britifh lofs was 
not known." — Heath's Memoirs. 


War; — their officers well (killed in v Military Art: — their 
Bands well difciplined ; — they arc formidable: Bur the) 
have the Heflians, &c. tor . tor whofe Aid the 

Britilh Coffers (fome of them at leaft) mufl be emptied. 

ll\\ for out Ally. have th< D, who. requires no 

fubfidy, nought, iteful Mind and a right Fear of 

Him ; and to concilia with true Integrity. 

Our Wages wen- railed fome rime ago (in confequence 
of a Petition to < efs) to thirty Dollar- I' Month, or a 
Dollar p 1 Day. The Pa) wou'd be no Inducement to (lay 
a moment in this (ho P th< Expend or Health, 

that beftol Bleffings. \": < Air of the whole Cit) feems 
infefti d. [n all i horrid fmell. 

But, 1 ) u t \ to m) Country, and another Confederation, 
quire, that I Qiou'd not quit m\ Poll at this Jundure. 


Dear Brothi r 

This is the verr) tint opertunity I had to 
fend you aline fince my return, we got ; > la) a 

week, and my Curiofity has fince led me to town three 
times, tho To Little fatiffadion, the town Apears to n 
be in a Bad ftat< o( d< rai c< it ie< ms the greateft depand- 
ence I- made on the mufkitry But am informed thai our 
arm) is in a much b< ••< r Pofture of d< t- n< e at I [ornshook 

1 1 - ' 1 1 " I ! • -nearly op] ■ ■ II 



and Kingsbridge, at the later the grand ftand is to be made 
Many Waggons & Horfes about here have been Impres for 
Carrying the ftores, Provifions &c out of New York I 
donte doubt but you have a much better account of the 
Battles and Vacuation of long Ifland 1 then I am able to 
give you the Enimy have Erected a bomb and two At- 
tilery battiries over again ours at Horns Hook 2 , which has 
ocafioned an almoft Conftant Cannonading for a weak, with 
Little lofs of blodd on our fide, which was one men killed 
& another Wounded yefterday, I doubt not but a fevere 
blow will Be ftruck foon — Its Currently Reported fince 
Gen 1 Sullivan's Return from Congrefs" that three of the 

1 The Battle of Long Ifland was fought on the twenty-eighth of Auguft, 
1776; and on the night of the twenty-ninth the army evacuated the ifland. 

The battle has been fully defcribed in the letters of Colonel Harrifon to 
the Prefident of Congrefs, 27 Auguft; of Lord Sterling to General Wafhing- 
ton, Auguft 29; of Colonel Haflett to Thomas Rodney, October 4, 1776; 
of General Sullivan to the Prefident of Congrefs, Oclober 25, 1777; of 
General Howe to Lord George Germain, 3d September ; in " Thompfon's 
Long Ifland," I., pp. 196, 214, 222; in Mr. Ward's paper on that fubjecl: 
before the New York Hiftorical Society; in Dawfon's " Battles of the United 
States," I., pp. 143-159, etc. 

The " Evacuation" of Long Ifland, as it is here called, has been defcribed 
fully in General Wafhington's letters to the Prefident of Congrefs, Auguft 31, 
1776, and that to his brother, John Auguftine, 22 September, 1776; Mar- 
fhall's " Wafhington" (4ft? Edit.), II., p. 439; Gordon's "Revolution" {Lon- 
don, 1788), II., pp. 312-316; and Stedman, I., pp. 197—8. 

2 Vide Note 1, page 105. 

3 General Sullivan, who had been taken prifoner at Long Ifland, had been 
difpatched to Philadelphia, by order of Admiral Lord Howe, to invite, in 
his behalf, a conference for the purpofe of attempting to adjuft the differences 
between the United States and Great Britain. 

CORRESP l\ .-- 1Q - 

Membei i havt a Confirence with Lord \ Gen 1 How. 

the) ware this da) to meet at ambo) on the Oration' Our 
army is ltill in high fpirits and Willing to meet their fo< • 

at am hour. 

The meeting between I rd Howe and the three member rreil 

II September, full reports of w hich 

may be found in the J Congrefs, Sepi mber 17, 

the '• v. • ,1840), 

.III., pp. 


[The following letter, written a few days after the affair, relates principally 
to the action on the Harlem plains, September 1 6th, 1776. That engage- 
ment, whether confidered in its origin, or the manner in which it was con- 
ducted, or in its effect on both armies, was one of the moil important of the 
minor actions of the War of the Revolution. 

Other accounts of the aition may be found in letters of General Wafhing- 
ton to the Prefident of Congrefs, September 18, 1776, and to John Auguft- 
ine Wafhington, September 22, 1776 ; General Greene's letter to Governor 
Cooke, September 17, 1776; Colonel Reed's letter to his wife, (Life of 
Jos. Reed, I., pp. 237-239;) Loffing's Field Book, II., pp. 612, 613 ; and 
Dawfon's Battles of the United States, I., pp. 160-166. 

George Clinton, the writer, was born in Orange county, New York, July 
26, 1739. His early life was one of adventure, and he fubfequently ftudied 
law with William Smith. 

In 1775, he was a member of the General Affembly of the Colony, and 
difplayed great firmnefs in his oppofition to the government. On the 15th 
of May, 1775, he took his feat in the Continental Congrefs, and voted lor 
Independence in July, 1776, although he was called into the field before the 
engroffed copy of the Declaration had been prepared for fignature, and his 
name does not appear on it. In March, 1777, he was commiffioned a brig- 
adier-general in the Continental army, having occupied a fimilar poll in the 
New York fervice many months before that time. In April, 1777, he was 
chofen both Governor and Lieutenant-Governor of New York, and accepted 
the former ; to which office he was re-elected five terms — in all eighteen 

When the enemy moved up the Hudlon, in October, 1777, he prorogued 
the Affembly, and, with his brother James, threw himfelf into Fort Mont- 
gomery, which he defended with the moll: deiperate bravery, abandoning the 
works only when the enemy had completely captured them. 

He prefided in the Convention of New York, which confidered and rati- 
fied the Conftitution of the United States ; in 1801, he was re-elected gov- 

I ill. BA 1 1 Li. OF HARLEM PL iqq 

; and, in the L nice I States, c he 

held until his deccaie. 

He died April zo, l8l 2, 

CL1NT( >N'S 1 i r 1 

I) Dodor 

I was favoured with yours by Capt, Jack- 
fon wrote .it m\ Houfe Eight Days ago for which I am 
much oblidged to you as it reah relieved mc oi great anx- 
v Health which I ho I i< ar is 

in a declinii Your brother too 1 hear lays ven 111 

ar ni\ Eioufe with a Fevour which gives mc great Concern. 
I have been (a hurried \ 1 out oi the ordinary wa) 

of my l)uf\ b) the Removal of our Arm) from N< w ^ 1 
\ gn L1 Part ot the publi( to this I at it has 

allium worn me <»ur tho 1 a to 1 1< a th I am as well as ufual; 
but how mj ( tution has been abh to bnd lying our 
fev« ral Nights in the Open Air & expofi d to tlain is all 
a Miracle to me Whom at II ne the leafl Wet indeed 
ionic Tim< - the Chang* oi W« atlu r almofl laid me up. 

The Evacuation of the Cit) I fuppofe has much alarmed 
the Country. It was judged unreliable in Council oi G 
Officers confidering the Enem) poffefled of Long-Ifland &< 

"( ity" — Mrs. Catharine Lh G bert Livingfton and 

lifter • Mrs. I •. pan. 

I \ . ! Amei . 5 mber 15, i 



and was therefore adviled to be evacuated. 1 The Artillery 
(at leaft all worth moving) & allmoit all the public ltores 
were removed out of it 2 fo that when the Enemy landed & 
attacked our Lines near the City 3 we had but few Men 
there (thole indeed did not behave well 4 ) our Lois however 
by our Retreat from there either in Men or Stores is very 

1 " I called one (a Council) on the 12th, when a large majority not only 
determined a removal of the army prudent, but abfolutely neceflary, declar- 
ing that they were entirely convinced from a full and minute enquiry into 
our fituation that it was extremely perilous." — General Wajlnngton to Pres- 
ident of Congrefs, 14 September, 1776. 

2 General Clinton evidently was in error in this remark. Jos. Trumbull, 
commiflary-general, writing to the Convention of New York, (" King's 
Bridge, September 16, 1776,") fays, " In the retreat, I have been obliged to 
leave behind large quantities of flour, which reduces our magazine too low. 
It is abfolutely neceflary to have a large quantity foon." General Wafhing- 
ton, alfo, [Letter to Congrefs, September 16, 1776) fays, "Molt of our 
heavy cannon, a confiderable part of our baggage, and a part of our ftores 
and provifions, which we were about removing, were unavoidably left in the 

" Between Turtle Bay and the city, September 15, 1776. 

4 " To my great lurprize and mortification, I found the troops that had 
been ported in the lines retreating with the utmoft precipitation, and thole 
ordered to fupport them (Parfons's and Fellows's brigades) flying in every di- 
rection, and in the greateft confufion, notwithstanding the exertions of their 
generals to form them. I ufed every means in my power to rally and get 
them into fome order ; but my attempts were fruitlefs and inefteftual ; and 
on the appearance of a fmall party of the enemy, not more than fixty or fev- 
enty, their diforder increafed, and they ran away in the greateft confufion 
without firing a fingle fhot." — General Wajlnngton to Prejident of Congrejs, 
16 September, 1776. The brigades of Parfons and Fellows referred to, em- 
braced eight regiments of Connecticut troops, and both the American officers 
and thofe of the enemy agree in their descriptions of the bad conduct of the 
above troops. 


inconfiderable. I would nor be underftood that it was my 
Oppinion to evacuate the City* neither do I mean now to 
condemn the Meafure it is done intended for the befl I am 
The fame Day the Enem) poflefled themfelves of the 
City, to wit, lafl Sunda) the) landed tl Main Bod) oi 
r 1 1 < ir Armi & encamped on York [(land a< rofs about the 
Eight Mile Stone & between thai V tin four Mile Stum. 
Our Arm) at lead one Divifion ol it la\ at Col' Morris's \ 
fo fouthward to near the Hollow Waj which run- acrols 
from Harlem Flai to th< Nod I* M Davit's Fl) 

of the city, 

ncil which 


I • mile-ftone <>n the 

! | v. (lone 

on the pr< 
hlv, near the pr 


he had be< G II Phil- 

lipfe, daughter inty, 

ami fettled in New York at I 

a member f the Com ' •-', he 

went I, where he died in 

well ki . fur- 

I him until 1825, when Ihc died, aged ninety-Ax. 
The country-feat ■ : Mr. V 
letter, the head-quai General ^ about ten 

from the city; and i- well known as the re:; ime Jumel, 

the widow 1 >i Aaron llurr. 

Marei v \ -a low fw \ a little well from the I 


About half way between which two Places our Lines run 
acrois the River which indeed at that Time were only began 
but are now in a very defenlible irate. On Monday Morn- 
ing the Enemy attacked our Advanced Party Commanded 
Col Knowlton 1 (a brave Officer who was killed in the 
Adion) near the Point of" Matje Davit's Fly the Fire was 
very brifk on both fides our People however foon drove 
them back into a Clear Field about 200 Paces South Eaif 
of that where they lodged themfelves behind a Fence cov- 
ered with Bullies our People purfued them but being ob- 

avenue, near One hundred and twenty-fourth ftreet. This locality, in ear- 
lier periods, was fomewhat celebrated as one of the landmarks between the 
two ancient corporations of New York and Harlem. 

1 Colonel Thomas' Knowlton was born at Ipfwich, Maflachufetts, about the 
year 1740; and having been left an orphan at an early age, he entered the 
army, under Captain Ifrael Putnam, in 1755, and ferved on the northern 
frontiers during fix campaigns, with great credit. He was alfo engaged in 
the expedition againft Cuba, in 1762; and was prefent at the capture of 
Havana. On -the opening of hoftilities in 1775, he was elected to the com- 
mand of the Afiilord company; and he was among the firft to reach Mafla- 
chufetts, in that exciting ftruggle. 

He was the commander of the Connecticut troops in the battle of Bunker's 
Hill, June 17, 1775, winning imperifhable renown; foon after which he was 
promoted to the rank of Major, and, at the clofe of the year he retired to Con- 
necticut. In 1776, he returned to the fervice with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, commanding a corps of rangers ; and he fecured the entire con- 
fidence of General Wafhington and of the army. 

When the Connecticut troops, at Kip's Bay, had brought fo much difgrace 
on their ftate, he thirfted for an opportunity to wipe off the ftain ; and the 
refult of his afpirations was the fpirited affair which has been defcribed in this 
letter. He fell, nobly, on the Harlem Plains, as herein related ; and he was 
buried in the trenches at Fort Wafhington, where his remains ftill reft, 
without a ftick or a ftone to mark the fpot. 

1 HI. I; A I I i.i. 01 HARLEM PLAINS , , ^ 

lidged to itand expofed in the open Field or taki a Fence 
at a Confiderable Diftance the) preferred the Latter it was 
indeed advifeable for we loon brought a Couple of Field 
Piect - to bear upon them which fairl) pur them to Flight 
with two Dili h >nly the Second Time our People 

purfued them clofel) to the Top <>r a Hill about 400 pa 
tliitant where the) received a ver) Confiderable Reinfo 
ment & made their Second Stand Our People alfo had r< - 
ceived a Confiderable Reinforcement, and at this Plaa .1 
ver) brift Adion commi need which continued tor near two 
Hour- in which Time we dro\<- the Enemy into a N< 
bouring orchard from that acrois a Hoiiou \ up another 
Hill nor tar Diftanl from their own Encampment, hen 
found tin- Ground rather Difadvantageous \ a Retreat in- 
fecure we therefore thoi proper not to purfue them an) 
farther & retired to our tint Ground leaving tin- Enem) on 
the lafl Ground we drove them to Thai N ghi I com- 
manded th< Right Wing of our a I t) or I' 
on the Ground th< Action fii "t which Col Paw ling 1 

' Detaile ... 

in General Wafliington's letter l *. September xttcr 

to his brother, fohn Auguftine, September zz, \~-<>; hia letter to Governor 
( : ptember i~. 1 G tie's letter to Goven 

of the fame dat< . ( Reed' letter to | 

the Unite . pp. 160 

B , II.. pp. ; Dunlap's New \ rk, II.. pp. _ ~. 

c el Levi IV. ■ imanded a reeiment of I 'liter 
county militia i i ' . I . ' ilj i - , i~ -' |. I I. had hcen 
a member o£ the Provincial L'ongrei> ; in May, i . was appointed Kirll 



& Col° Nicoll's 1 Regiment were part and next Day I 
fent a Party to bury our Dead. They found but 17. The 
Enemy removed theirs in the Night we found above 60 
Places where dead Men had lay from Pudles of Blood & 
other appearances & at other Places fragments of Bandages 
& Lint. 2 From the belt Account our Lois killed & wounded 
is not much lefs than feventy feventeen of which only dead 3 
[this Account of our Lofs exceeds what I mentioned in a 
Letter I wrote Home indeed at that Time I only had an 
account of the Dead — the Wounded were removed — 12 
oclock M. Sunday two Delerters from on Board the Bruno 
Man of War 4 lying at Moriifaina lay the Enemy had 300 
killed on Monday laft. Note ky Gen. Clinton^ the Reft 
moftly likely do well & theirs is fomewhere about 300 — 
upwards it is generally believed — Tho I was in the latter 

Judge of Uliter county; and was, alio, a ienator in 1777 and 1782. He 
died in 1782.— {Coll. of Ulfler Hijf. Soc, I., )>. 162.) 

1 Colonel Ifaac Nicoll, of Gofhen, Orange county, had commanded the 
regiment of "Minute-men in Orange County," {Jour, of Com. of Safety, 
J em. 5, 1776) but at the period referred to in this letter, he commanded a 
regiment of Orange county militia {Jour, oj Frov. Convention, July 17, 

- The lofs of the enemy has never been fatiffaclorily afcertained, as the re- 
ports have been concealed, or fo much divided as to miflead the ftudent. 
There is no doubt that the lofs was confiderably over three hundred — the 
heavieft lofs falling on the Light Infantry. 

3 The lofs of the Americans, "in killed and wounded, was about fixty ; 
but the greateft lofs we fuftained was in the death of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Knowlton, a brave and gallant officer." — General JVaJlangton to John Au- 
gujline Washington, 22 September, 1776. 

4 "Bruno." — La Brune. 


Part indeed almoft the whole of tin Adion I did not think 
fo mam Men w< Ir is without Doubt however 

the) had cur on thi ifion between 4 & jooo of their 
choifefl Troops \ 1 xpe&ed to have drove us off the [fland. 
The) are greatl) mortified at their Difapointment & have 
ever fince been exceedingly modi it & quiet nor having 
even pratroling Parties beyond their Lin< 1 lay within a 
Mile of them the Night after the battle & never heard 
\l 1 work harder I believe they thought we intended to 
purfue our Advantage 5 k them next Morning. 

h I onl) had a Pair of Pi bis I - oud I think have (hot 
a Rafcal or two I am fun I woud at leafl have Q* 
pupp) "t an Ofl I found (linking off in tin hi al o( the 
\ ,, M it is a pitt) yours (hould lay idle Had I m) 
fword I coud change it much to m) Liking in which Cafe 
I woud Return you D mj deal Do v > fee your 

fifter as often as you poflib 5 let me hear from you 

.1 1 >fb n .1 opportunit) 1 >flfi 1 M.I to my Brother & 

b<li< v e me 

Sim erel) 

Cti o Ci inti »n 

Sunda) 22 Si 1 . N ght before laft al 1 oClock 

rhe number of the en -1. There 

however, thai in •> thoufand, exeli 

\n inftance ol thia " nking 0F," in thi> action, maj rded 

in the minutes of the General ( ' >enezer I. 

well of Colonel Durk , Sq 


there was a terrible Fire towards the City it occaiioned re- 
markable Light at this Place. It continued till yeiterday 
afternoon by accounts from Paulus Hook 1 which is yet in 
our Poffeiiion it was in the City, broke out in fundry Places 
at the fame Time & is great Part confumed. 2 There is a 
flying Report of a French & Spaniili Fleet to the South- 
ward & it is faid 7 of the largeft (hipping left N York yei- 
terday how true I cant fay. I have not time to write 
Home You mull go fee them. 
[Addreffed to 

Doctor Peter Tappen s 

Fort Montgomery^ 

1 "Paulas Hook" — now Jerfey City. 

'"' The "terrible fire" here referred to, broke out "at or near Whitehall, foon 
extended to the Exchange, took its courie up the weft fide of Broad-ftreet, as 
far as Verlattenberg Hill, confuming all the blocks from the Whitehall up. 
The flames extended acrofs the Broadway from the houfe of Mr. David 
Johnfton to Beaver Lane, or Fincher's Alley, on the weft, and carried all be- 
fore it, a few buildings excepted, to the houfe at the corner of Barcley-ftreet, 
wherein the late Mr. Adam Vandenberg lived, fweeping all the crofs ftreets 
in the way. The buildings left itanding, on the weft fide of the Broadway, are 
fuppofed to be Captain Thomas Randall's, Capt. Kennedy's, Dr. Mallat's, 
Mr. John Cortlandt's fugar houfe and dwelling houfe, Dr. Jones's, Hull's 
tavern, St. Paul's, Mr. Axtell's, and Mr. Rutherford's. The caufe of the 
fire is not known. We imagine about a 6th part of the whole city is de- 
ftroyed, and many families have loft their All." — Gaine's A'. Y. Gazette & 
Mercury, September 28, 1776. 

3 Doctor Peter Tappan was a brother-in-law of General Clinton, the latter 
having married Mifs Cornelia Tappan, of Kingfton. 


[The ■ Admiral 

ihcir fucceflrul occuj 
ing fpccimcn ot' thai 

ments of the loyal inhabitatv their nun 

their n 

adhered to the 

paper now extant; and while the 
and • 

in the cull and even the 


imprefi under the 


I • the ! ill ; the 


To th( R Honorable, Richard, Lord Y r ifcounl II 
— ot the Kingdom <»t Ireland 

And to II Excellencj rh» Honorable William II 
I General of hi Maj 1 Vn< rica ; the 

Kin. ( nmiflioners for reftoring Peac< to his Maj< 
Colonies in North A i — 

Your Excellencies, b) your declaration, bearing date 
Jul) i-i: . 1776, having fignified, that "the King is delir- 
" ous to deliver his American Subjeds from the Calamities 


" of War and other Oppreffions which they now undergo ; 
" and to reftore the Colonies to his protection and peace " — 
and by a fubfequent Declaration, dated Sep r . 19 th 1776, 
having alio been pleafed to exprefs your derire "to Confer 
" with his Majefty's well affected fubjects, upon the means 
" of restoring the public Tranquility and eftabliihing a per- 
" manent union with every Colony, as a part of the Brititli 
Empire. — We Therefore, whole names are hereunto Sub- 
fcribed, Inhabitants of the City and County of New York, 
in the province of New York, reflecting with the tendered: 
emotions of Gratitude on this Inftance of his Majefty's 
paternal Goodnefs ; and encouraged by the Affectionate 
manner in which his Majeftys gracious purpofe hath been 
conveyed to us by your Excellencies, who have thereby 
evinced that Humanity, is infeperable from that true Mag- 
nanimity and thole enlarged fentiments which form the 
moft Shining Charatiers — beg leave to reprefent to your 
Excellencies — 

That we bear true allegiance to our Rightful Sovereign 
George the Third as well as warm affection to his facred 
perfon Crown and Dignity. — That we Efteem the conftitu- 
tional Supremacy of Great Britain, over thefe Colonies, and 
other depending parts of his Majeftys dominions, as Effen- 
tial to the Union, Security, and Welfare, of the whole 
Empire, and fincerely lament the Interruption of that Har- 
mony, which formerly fublifted between the Parent State 
and thefe her Colonies — That many of the Loyal Citizens 


have been driven aw a) by the Calamitu oi War and the 
Spirit oi P< •' ution which lard) prevailed; or i< nt to N< \\ 
I gland, and other diftant Parts We therefore hoping 
that the fufferings which our abfent fellow citizens undt 
tor their Attachment to the Royal Caufe ma) plead in their 
behalf; humbl) pra) that Your Excellencies would be 
pleafed on thefe our dutiful reprefentations r<> Reftore this 
( \ County to hi \l ■ ty's Prott ftion and P< 


Haob Aaron, John Abeel, Abm. J. Abramfe, Philip 
Ackert, Jeramiah Ackley, John Ackley, Abraham Adam-. 
Edward \ I \ , Jeronimus Akemfen, Stephen 

Allen, Thomas Allei G \ , Robert Allifon, Jeron- 

emu Al ' • ne, John \ tyne, Jan i \ i . Johi Vmer- 

' In the 
order has been 

and in avoid tl W 

mnd mon been indi 

ne the nui ther thefe 

in all liferent ii rmine, but 

the probability is that they did not in every infl 

Fuller inform me of thefe figi und in a 

valuable work emit American I 


PhiU] I I 



man, John Amiel, Jun., John Amory, Daniel Amos, John 
Anderiefe, Stephen Anderrefe, John Antill, 1 Lewis Antill, 
Cha s W d Apthorpe, 2 John Archer, Philip Arcularius, Fran- 
cis Arden, 3 Michael Arnott, Peter Arrell, Gilbert Afh, V. 
Pierce Afhfield, Robert Atkins, Thomas Atkinlon, Richard 
Auchmuty, Robert N. Auchmuty, Samuel Auchmuty, 4 Dan- 
iel Aymar (2), William Aymer, William Axtell. 5 

Theophylact Bache, Win Backhouf'e, John Badger, Jo- 
seph Bagley, Elias Bailey, William Bailey, Samuel Baldwin, 
Wm Balfour, Ifaac Ball, Titus Ball, Evert Banker, Jun., 
Peter Bannot, Paulus Banta, Edward Barden, George 
Barke, Thomas Barnes, Henrich Barr, John Barwick, Sam 1 
Bates, William Bauman, Lawe Bayard, Robert Bayard, 
Samuel Bayard, Wm Bayard, 7 William Bayley, Thomas 

1 John Antill, Efq., poftmafter of the city and agent for the packet-boats. 

2 Charles Ward Apthorpe was a member of the council, refiding at Bloom- 

3 Francis Arden was a butcher doing bufmefs in Fly market — the owner 
of Molyneaux the boxer, who was known as " Pete Arden " while he was 
in flavery in New York. 

4 Rev. Samuel Auchmuty, D. D., rector of Trinity Church, New York. 
He graduated at Harvard Univerfity in ] 742 ; and on the 3d of March, 
1777, he died in this city. 

5 Colonel William Axtell was a member of the council, refiding at Flat- 
bufh, L. I. 

6 Samuel Bayard, one of the firm of William Bayard 8c Co., importers. 
He was alfo affiftant fecretary oi the province. 

7 Colonel William Bayard, head of the old mercantile houfe of William 
Bayard & Co. In the earlier ftages of the Revolutionary ftruggle he afted 
with the people, and was a member of the " Committee of Fifty." He alfo 
enrertained the MafTachufetts delegates at his houfe on the North River, in 1775. 


B in, Jacob Beitturnner, Ja Bell, Jofeph Bell, Samuel 
Bell, .Inn.. William Bell, Grovi B nd, John Bengfton, 
John Bennet, Chriftoph r Bei J Beq . Henry 

Bernt, Peter Berton, Fred k Bicker, John Binches, M 
Bingham, John Bifhop, Richard Black, John Black 
Patrick Blancheville, [faac Blanck, Jeremiah Blanck, 
Waldron Blean,' Daniel Blockner, Chriftian Bloom. Arch- 
ibald Blundell, Chriftopher Blundell, James Board, Henr) 
B J Boelen, Nicholas J. Bogart, Peter Bogart,' 

Chriftian Bollmain, Anthon) Bolton. Ja »b B er, Fred. 
B tticher, John Bo . Samuel Bowne, Samuel B 
Thomas Braine, David Bramar, Charles John Bran- 
linn. Ifaai Brafher, [faa< Bratt, Simon B 1. Elias B - 

voort, Henn Brevo t, G . B erton, Jacob Brewer- 
ton, Jam< 5 Br< . Al< sand( r B . J ohi B 
David Brill, John Brook-. Ab 4 Browi . s t B >wer, 
Charles Brown, William Brown. Jai Browne, John 

». hriftopher !'■ . 

atre, fouth fide of |ohn ftreet, near I 

V. . in the third I lun- 

Henr) Boel, "( rk I 
' Peter Bogert, rcfi 1 1 

Hem lener in the v 

avenue and Wafhington fquare. The I 

w h'> redded in thai \ iiii 

" [ohn I r, .in unlicenfed re "near the new I 

Church" i 

irown, an u Bi 

ftreet and \ erlattentx 


Browne, Thomas Brownejohn, 1 Jofeph Browning, Robert 
Brunfon, James Bryad, Thomas Buchanan, 2 Andries Buhler, 
William Will™ Bull, Olive Burgefs, John Burns, Thomas 
Buroton, John Burrowe, Wm Burton, Charles Bufh, James 
Buih, John Buxton, Godfrey Bydebuck, Garrard Byrn. 

John Calder, William Caldwell, Samuel Camfield, Daniel 
Campbell, 3 D. Campbell, Duncan Campbell, 4 George Camp- 
bell, John Campbell (2), Jonah Cannon, Dennis Carleton, 
Adam Carr, Anthony Carr, Robert Carr, Gideon Carftang, 
Thomas Carter, Thomas Cater, Richard Cayhterry, Tadmas 
Chadwick, Jn° Chapman, Robert Cheefeman," Jofeph 
Chew, Johannis Chorberker, Alexander Clark, 6 Archibald 
Clark, Daniel Clark, John Clark, 7 Clement Cooke Clarke, 
John Clarke, Scott L. Clark, Samuel Clayton, Thomas 
Cleathen, William Clofworthy, William Cochran, Philip 

1 Thomas Brownejohn, a druggift and apothecary, doing bufinefs at the 
corner of Wall ftreet and Hanover fquare (now Pearl Jireet), next door to 
the book ftore of Hugh Gaine. 

s Thomas Buchanan, one of the celebrated firm of Walter and Thomas 
Buchanan, importers and fhipping merchants. This houfe was rendered 
unufually confpicuous from the fadl that to it was configned the tea-fhip 
which was returned to London, with its cargo, by the people of New York, 
in April, 1774. 

3 Daniel Campbell, a retailer of liquors at Corlies Hook. 

4 Duncan Campbell, an unlicenfed retailer of liquors in Beekman ftreet, 
near St. George's Chapel. 

5 Robert Cheefeman, a retailer of liquors in Broadway, near Pearl ftreet. 

6 Alexander Clark, a retailer of liquors in New Chappel ftreet (now Wtfi 

7 John Clark (or Clarke ?). If the former, during thirty years the clerk 
of Trinity Church, who, in June, 1783, removed to St. John, New Brunf- 

NEW York LOYALIS ! _> i 

( kniii. Win. Cockroft, Jofepfa Coff, James CoggefliaU,' 
Aaron Colin. Charles Colboum, John Cole. Jofeph Col- 
lincs, Thomas Colliftt r. Mathias Compton, Nicholas Con- 
nery, John Cooder, Georg C<><>k. William Cook. John 
Clarke Cooke, Michael Coon. H<nr\ Coon-. William Cor- 
bey, James Conn, Georg Corfelius, William Corfelius, 
Andrew Couglan, Conrad Coun, Francis Cowley, John Cox, 
Ludwig Cox, Bartholemeu ( . Dennis Coyl, Patrick 

Coyle, Peter ( en, Robert Crannell, John Crawford, 

John Crawley, Belthar Creamer, Lud. Creamer, Martin 
Creiger, Georgt t ger, John Ludtz Croufcoup, I' 
( vder, Jn II c William Cullen, ( I 

Cummings, Matth< w Cul 

B njamin Daffigney, John Damlong, John Darg, Jn 
Baltis Da \ SerL, John Ik Da . .Inn.. John Davan,' John 

wick, and 

in Robinfon ft] 

William Cockcroft, r in 

pean and 

Martu Ci gier, a retail 

* John 1 G • I ' I . I : 

trealurer of th< nel in the 

fervice, comma] , and, 

at the peace, 

'John Ball Dalh, fenior, kept a hardware and tin ftore lie Of- 

" John Davan, leather dreifer ami breeches maker, 
and B Robert and J »hn Murray, Queen | 

/' | ft] \ near the Fly Market, where lie ti ulivc 

wholefale and retail trade. 


Davan, Jun., James Davis, Wm. Day, 1 William Deall, 
James Dean, Elk. Deane, James Deas, 2 Jno. De Clue, John 
De Forert, Jofeph Degroot, Sen., Ifaac De Lamate, John 
Delancey, 3 Jno De Lancey, Jun., Oliver Delancy, 4 Jona- 
than Delano, Francis Humbert De la Roche, James De- 
masney, Michael Denny, Elias Defbrofles, James Deibroffes, 5 
James Defbrofles, Jun., Henry Detloff, John Detrich, Will m 
Devereaux, David Devoore," Guert Sp 1 De Wint, John 
Dikeman, 7 Barnnae Dill, Silvanus Dillingham, Anthony 
Dodane, Amos Dodge, Thomas Dodge, Adam Dolmidge, 
Robert Donkirz, Archibald Donnaldlbn, Thomas Dor- 
man, Peter Dorry, Walter Dougall, John Dougan, Ed- 
ward Doughty, 8 Matthew Douglafs, 9 John Dowers, James 

1 William Day, a retailer of liquors in Warren ftreet. At the clofe of the 
war he removed to St. John, New Brunfwick, and was one of the original 
grantees of that city. 

■James Deas, a perukemaker and hairdrefTer, rending in the lower part of 
Broad ftreet. 

3 John De Lancey, fon of Peter De Lancey, of Weftchefter county, and 
his fuccefTor in the General AfTembly as reprefentative of the borough of 
Weftchefter, which office he retained until 1775, when he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Congrefs. 

4 Oliver De Lancey was a brigadier-general in the Britifh fervice, and died 
in Beverly, Yorkfhire, England, in 1785, aged fixty-eight years. 

5 James DefbrofTes, doing bufinefs "at the Ship-yards," in the vicinity of 
Catharine ftreet, Eaft River. 

e David Devoore had been a miller doing bufinefs near the Killing Bridge, 
which fpanned "Devoore's mill-ftream." He is faid to have built " Cato's" 

' John Dickeman, alderman of the Out Ward of the city. 

s Edward Doughty, an unlicenfed liquor dealer on Whitehall Dock. 

9 Matthew Douglafs, one of the firm of Douglafs and Van Tuyl, unlicenfed 

\, \v YORK LOYALISTS ] 25 

Downes, John Drummond, Edward Drury, Cornelius Dru- 
yer, John Dudley, Chriftopher Dugan, Robely Dukely, 
Nicholas Duley, Jacob Dulmadge, John Duly. John Du- 
mont, Jofeph Durbunow, Jacob Durje, Derick Duryee. 

William Eam< -. Edward Eaftman, Daniel Ebbets, Chrif- 
tian Eggert, Samuel Ellis (2), William Ellifon, Francis 
Elfworth, B< nj n Englifli, James Ettri 

Georg< Fach, Alex 1 Fairlie, Samuel Falkenhau, Edmund 
Fannin- John Faulkner, David Fenton, Robert Fenton, 
Dennis Fergufon, Human Fergufon, James Fergufon, Ji 
A. lam Finch (2), Wa 1 G raid, John Fleming i j), 
Jam.- Fletcher, Michael Flim, James Flynn, G Fol- 

liot, Al- \ Forb( . Robert Fordham, Daniel Forfchee, Hen- 
,\ Forfter, John Forfyth, Al. sander Fortune, William For- 

n in Uqu 1 on tin- Fty M 



unpopulai ; 

menl dy impaired from tha 


rican Regii h he had tl 

celebrated in the Southt 

thefid I. At l ' 'he war Ik N 'here he ! 

lieutenant-governor; and, in 1786, he w 
t0 prina lihind, where he remained unl The time 

death is I led. 

i merchant tran: five bufinefs in this 

city. II was elected a member of the Pr < 

ned; and he alfo declined to lervc as a member of the "Commitl 

One Hundred," t.> which he had been elected. 


tune, George Fowler, John Fowler, 1 Samuel Franklin, Wal- 
ter Franklin, Lovis Frauzers, Alexander Frafer, Walter 
Frazer, Ab m Fruge, Daniel Fueter, David Fuhrle, Michael 

Chriftian Gabble, Alex r Galbreath, John Gallaudett, Da- 
vid Ganner, Francis Gantz, Peter Garrabrance, Jun., Fred- 
erick Bonn Garten, Matthew Gafkin, Archibald Gatfield, 2 
Benjamin Gatfield, Nicholaus Gaub, Andrew Gautier, 3 Da- 
vid Geler, Francois Gerard, William Giffing, Leonard Gil- 
dert, Thomas Gillefpie, Richard Glebets, John Glover, 
William Goddington, Ab m Gomez, Moles Gomez, Jun., 
Peter Goodman, Lodwig Gounzer, Abraham Gouvernuer, 
James Govers, Peter Graff, Edward Grant, John Grant (2), 
Thomas Graves, Andrew Gray, John Gray, Wm. Gray, 
David Gregg, 4 lean George Greffand, John Grierlon, Rob- 
ert Griffith, John Griffiths, 5 John Grigg, Thomas Grigg, 
D. Grim, 7 Jacob Grim, Peter Grim, Charles Grimfley, Ja- 
cob Grindlemyer, Thomas Grifdall, Hendrick Gulick. 

1 John Fowler, rending at "Little Bloomingdale." 

2 Archibald Gatfield, an unlicenfed dealer of liquors in Slaughter-houfe 

3 Andrew Gautier, alderman of the Dock Ward. 

4 David Gregg, probably one of the celebrated firm of Gregg, Cunningham 
& Co., merchants tranfafting a very heavy bufinefs with foreign countries. 

5 John Griffiths, "Mailer of the Port." 

G John Grigg, a retailer of liquors in Sloat alley. At a fubfequent period 
he appears to have become a tallow-chandler, tanner, etc., in which bufinefs 
he became infolvent in 1783. 

' David Grim, the antiquarian tavern keeper, fo well known and gratefully 
remembered in New York by every ftudent of local hiltory. He formerly 


1 2 

> - 

Frederick Haas, Georg* Haafiis, Mathias Haerlman, John 
Halden, Edward Hall, Henry Hall, Peter Hall, James 
Hallcr, Samuel Hallt r. Daniel Halfted, John Hamilton 1 1 2 >, 
Jo(i ph Handfbrth, Ab™ Hangworth, William Hanna, 
Goft. Hans, Mecil Hanfen, Martin Hanihee, Johannes 
Harhcll, John Hardenburgh, David Hardley, Laurance 
1 1 irdman, John Harris Richard Harri- ( z ). Thomas I [ar- 
rilon. Charles Harr. (. I lartman, Laurance Hartwick, 

Charles Haus, Thomas Hautzman, William Hauxhurft/ 
Jofeph Ha v Hand, William Hay, Barrak Hays, David 
Hays, Thomas Haywood, Jacob Heartz, Coo. Heath, 
1 i. Wm. II •. I Hedges, Valten Hefner, Andrew 

Heifter, John Henderfon, Uriah Hendricks, William II - 
\ ey, John Ja< " ; > I [i tzell, .Ian- II Garni Hi 

Daniel Hick, Whit. h< .1.1 Hicks, Thoma II><". Jofeph 
Hildrith, John Hillman, Michael Hillfteam, John Hillyer, 
Jofeph Hitchcock, Johanni II . Michael Hoffman, 

kept "the Thi in 4 in 1776, 1 nailer 

in William lb 

Pel I I. ill, a retailer of liquors in Peck flip. 
'John Hamilton, agent, ; 1 Carolina, \sh<> 

had accepted militai tment under the crown. Via ftate- 

ment, Tomlinfon M 

• Hardenbrook, affiftant alderman of the Out Ward I 'lie city. 
' \\ illiam Hawxhurft, a merchant dealing in : t-afh, kct- 

vrenches and children, horfes, etc. 
'Fred. Wm. H . German, redding in Queen ( /' ') ftreet, 

who had been commiffioned by Governor Trj iptain in the loyalift 

1 I ■ 
' Whitehead Hicks, mayor of the city of [ . from 1766 to 1776. 


James Holden,' Peter Holmes, James Hope, Rinier Hop- 
per, Yallefs Hopper, Thomas Hopwood, Robert Home, 
James Horner, 2 Thomas Horffield, Daniel Horfmanden, 3 
Jacob Hortz, Alexander Holack, 4 Bernard Mich 1 Houfe- 
al, 5 Robert Howard, James Hoy, George Hubnors, Ben- 
jamin Hugget, Richard Hughes, Thomas Hughes, Robert 
Hull, 7 Jofeph Hunt, John Fred Huntill, Diederick Hyer. 

James Imbrie, Charles Inglis, 8 Levy Ifrael. 

Daniel Jacobs, John Johnfon, Robert Johnfton, 9 David 
Jones, John Jones 10 (2), Samuel Jones, William Jones. 

Chrirtian Kauri', John Keen, Andrew Keer, John Kenne- 

1 John Holden, a retailer of liquors near the Upper Barracks, in the upper 
part of the Park. 

2 James Horner, an unlicenfed retailer of" liquors in French-church (now 
Pine) ftreet, near Broadway. 

3 Daniel Horfmanden was the chief juftice of the colony. His wife was 
Mary, daughter of Colonel Abraham De Peyfter, and widow of Rev. Mr. 
Veky, rector of Trinity Church, New York ; and he died at Flatbufh, Long 
Ifland, September 23d, 1778, aged eighty-eight years. 

4 Alexander Hofack, an unlicenfed retailer of liquors in Dey ftreet. 

5 Rev. Bernard Michael Houfeall, V. D. M., fenior paftor of the Lutheran 
German Church. 

b Benjamin Huggett, a grocer and dealer in liquors, and affiftant alderman 
of the North Ward, living and doing bufinefs on the corner of NafTau and 
Fair (now Fulton) ftreet. 

7 Robert Hull, at " Hull's Tavern," No. 18 Broadway. 

8 Rev. Charles Inglis, affiftant rector of Trinity Church, New York. He 
fucceeded Rev. Dr. Auchmuty, as rector; but, in 1783, he was obliged to 
refign and take refuge in Nova Scotia, and fubfequently, he was appointed 
Lord Bifhop of that colony. In 1809, he was a member of the Council of 
the Province; and he died in 1816, aged eighty-two. 

9 Robert Johnfon, an unlicenfed retailer of liquors, in Ferry ftreet. 
"'John Jones, M. D., profeflbr of furgery in King's (Columbia) College. 


dy, .In .!. Kempe, Johannis Kefer, Aaron Keyfer, v - 
phen Kibble James Killmafter, Linus King, John King- 
fton, Jofeph Kirby, Benj n Kiflam,' Philip Kiflick, Ge< 
K ein, John Klein,' Jacob Klinck, John C. Knapp, .la- 
cob Kneht, Ab™ Knickerbacker, John Knoblock, Robert 

Jolt Lachman, Nicholas Lackman, William La Croix, 
Stephen Ladlam, John Lagear, Thomas Lahriwick, Thomas 
Lamb. Albert Lamkin, Henr) Law, John Lawrai . Si - 
phen Leach, Jam< Leadbelter, John Leake, Johi I 
Jofeph I.- '■. John Lell, (- Lent, Ja I . II >bert 

Leonard, Alexander Leflie, Ja Lefly, Michael Lefller, 
I)a\ id Le\ iibn, C I . John Leu is (2), P 

rick Leyburn, Daniel Lightfoot, Barnard Lin, Charles Ian- 
daman, Stroud ( Lincoln, Johannis Lindner. Philip 

1 |i>|in Tabor Kern] 
Lindley Murray, t he grammarian, 

1 Philip Kiflick, 
ftreei 1 /' H < i . 

very link' inferior to Fren H 

tenlive aflbrcm< , porter, and cider, 

I >hh Klyne, a baker, 
nard, 1 1 

John Cogghill] ■ . . had fled 

tr. >in England I :,c comer 

tad ftreei and \ Hill. 

matter 1 I 
1 ' I r Leflie, wl anli- 

1 retailer - >t li , the Barra< • 1 /' (in Chatham Iti 


Linzie, Leonard Lifpenard, William Litch, George Little, 
John Lockhart, John Lockman, John Logan, Chriftopher 
Long, James Long, John Long, Charles Lorrilliard, Lam- 
bert Losije, William Loughead, James Love, William 
Lowndes, Thomas Lowrey, 1 William Lowrie, John Andries 
Lucaim, Henry Ludlam, Daniel Ludlow, Geo. D. Ludlow, 2 
Thomas Grey Luebe, Thomas Lupton, Philip Lydig, 
Thomas Lynch. 3 

W m M c Bride, 4 James M c Candefs, Thomas M c Carty, Ed- 
ward M c Collom, Patrick M c Connegall, John M c Cormick, 
Archibald M c Donald, 6 John M c Donnald, Benjamin M c Dow- 
al, Hugh M c Dowll, Charles M c Evers, John M c Fall, Dou- 
gall M c Farlane, John M c Gillaray, Hugh MTntire, Patrick 
M c Kay, John MTvenzie, John M c Kinlay, Peter M c Lean, 
Neil M c Leod, John M c Manomy, William M c Nabb, Daniel 
M c Onnully, Donald M c Pheribn, Dougald M c Pheribn, John 

1 Thomas Lowry, an unlicenfed retailer of liquors, oppofite Ofwego mar- 
ket, in Broadway. 

2 George Duncan Ludlow was one of the juftices of the Supreme Court of 
the Province. He refided at Hempftead, Long Ifland, and fuffered greatly 
from the incurfions of the Americans. In 1780, he was appointed mailer of 
the rolls, and fuperintendent of the police on Long Ifland ; and having taken 
refuge in New Brunfwick, in 1783, he was a member of the firft council in 
that province. As the fenior member of that body, he adminiftered the gov- 
ernment, ad interim; and he was the firft chief juftice of the Supreme Court 
of that colony. He died at Fredericlon, February 12, 1808. 

s Thomas Lynch, a dealer in liquors and negroes, in Duke (now Stone) ftreet. 
4 William McBride, an unlicenfed retailer of liquors, in Cooper's ftreet, 
near Lupton's Wharf. 

Archibald McDonald, a licenfed retailer of liquors, in Church ftreet. 

N] u YORK LOYALIS rS. j ■> \ 

M Pherfon, 1 Thomas M Williams, John Machet, Peter 
Machet, John Maffet,' Thomas Mahan, Abraham Malunar, 
P< •< : Mai g< . Mofi Marden,' Jon« - Marie, Joakim Marr, 
John Marihall (2), Nathaniel Ma II Marx, John 

Malkelyn, Thomas Mafon,' Matthew M . . James 
Maxwell, Thomas Medanel, John M'ulialial. John Middle- 
mafs, Peter Middleton, 1 James Mildrum/ David Henry 
Millar. Charles Miller, Hugh Mil : > Miller, John 

Miller, Jofhua Miller, Michael Miller, Philip Miller, Rob- 
ert Miller, Thomas Miller, Sam 1 Million. John Minufs, 
James Mitchell, Viner Mitchell, J M 11, William 

Mook, Jofeph M001 \ M ,B ■ Moor, John Moor, 
Benj Moore, Bolti Moore, Henry Mo . J 1 M 
Jeremiah Moore, John M - 2 . James Moran, Philip 

\| . . ( . Mom 1. Martin Mo , ( M 

' [ohn M : . 

1 Mofes Mardin, 
• '» B Gi een. 

- 1 [ohn Marlhall, an unli< 1 1 Church 


1 Thoma M . , .1 retailei 

Dr. Peter Mid ol medicine ami 1 

medica in K 

'James Maldrem, an unlicenfed retailei ice the Slip 


: Rev. Benjamin Moore, affiftant Church, New York, 

(ucceeded Dr. I r, and fubiequently became I tlic dio- 

cefe. He died February 27, 1816. 

' John Moore, depul 

'' fames Moran was firfl clerk in the cuftom-houfe in 


Ifaac Mott, William Mucklevain, Jeremiah Mullar, 
Charles Muller, Frederick Muller, George Muller, John 
God. Muller, Samuel Murgiffroyd, Philip Murphy, Lindley 
Murray, John Murray, Jun., Robert Murray, 1 George 
Myer, James Myer, Samuel Myers, George Myir. 

Michael Nailor, Samuel Naroy, David Nathan, David 
Navaro, James Neaven, Cafpar Nellie, Samuel Nichols, 
Edward Nicoll, William Niers, John Nixon, John Noblit, 
William Norman, Benj n Norwood, John Norwood, Van- 
derclife Norwood, Valentine Nutter. 2 

Garret Oaks, 3 Henry O Brien, Benj n Ogden, John Ogil- 
vie, Alexander Ogfbury, John O Neill, Joi'eph Orchard, 
Philip Oi'ward, Jacob Ott, Joi'eph Owl, Walter Owl. 

Aaron Packman, William Pagan, Hayes Pannell, Francis 
Panton, William Parcells, Thomas Parrifien, John Paica, 
William Patton, Thomas Paul, James O Pava, George 
Peitlch, Gibbert Pell, Richard Penny, Henry W. Perry, 
Mervin Perry, 4 Harry Peters, Hugh Philips, Adolph. Phil- 
ipie, Fred k Philipfe, William Poole, James Potter, Jacob 

1 Robert Murray, a Friend, and head of the houfe of Murray, Sanfom & 
Co., among the leading merchants of Colonial New York. His place of bufi- 
nefs was in Queen (Pear/) ftreet, between Beekman and Burling Slips; and 
his refidence on Murray Hill. (J ide page 29.) 

2 Valentine Nutter, bookfeller and ftationer, oppofite the coffee-houfe in 
Wall ftreet, where he remained until the clofe of the war. 

3 Garret Oaks, a retailer of liquors doing bufinefs on Cruger's Wharf, 
(between Old and Coenties Slips). 

4 Mervin Perrv, " Repeating and Plain Watch and Clock maker, from 
London," at the fign of " the Dial," fix doors below Gaine's printing office, 
the fame fide the way (Pearl /heet, eight doors below Wall ftreet). 

M \V VoRK LOYALIS 1 5. , vj 

Pozer, Thomas Price, David Provooft, David Provoft, 
Capper Pryer, Edward Pryor, John Philip Puntzius. 

Benjamin Quackenbofs, Luke C. Quick, Thomas Ouill. 

John Randiker, Rem. Rapt Ije,' John Rapp, Frederick 
Ranfier, Henry Reden, Stephen Reevi . Georg* Reicble, 
Nich Remind, Gcorg< Remfen,* John A. Remfen, Jacob 
Refler, Fred* Rhinelander,' Philip Rhinelander, Henry 
Ricker, David Rider, John Killer, John Ritu r, J. Rob rl 
John Robertfon, Ezekiel Robins, Jarvis Roebuck, James 
R . . Godfred Roltonour, Cornelius Romme, Alexander 
Rofs (2), Jam< R . Robert Rofs, Jafper Ruckell, Wil- 
liam Ruddle, i 1 1 . . J ob Ruoifer, Cornelius Ryan, 
John Rykeman. 

John Sackett, John Samler, Thomas Sample Sam. Sam- 
uel, Jacob S. mt. ir. John Saundei \ s ande, John 
Scandlin, Coenradt Schultez, Chriilian SchultZj Adam 

1 J.i ;hia Stage houfe," in White 

Rem Rapelj unilhmcnt inflicted by tin h of 

June, 1 776, has beei Peter El ting 1 ( \ irick, 

Stephen Re I the firm of Whitehoufe it Reeve, jew- 

ellers, doing bufinefi in Queen [Pearl') ftreet, near the corner of Burling 


1 . R mfen, an unlici: liquors, in Water llrcet, near 

the Exchange Bridge (Broad Jb 

Frederic Rhinelander, a very heavy importer of crockery and other mer- 
chandise, who tranlactcd bufinefs at Burling Slip; and in 1783, tranlactcd 
bufinc !• No. 168 W iter (beet. 

'John Rol .1 .. ' the city and county of New Y 

fames R 1 . an unlicenfed retailer of liquors, in Queen (Pearl) llrcet. 


Schuumburg, 1 Tho s Scorfield, 2 William Scott, 3 J. Seagroove, 
Jofliua Seaman, James Seamans, Levy Seamans, Cafper 
Semler, Jacob Shafer, George Shaw, James Shaw, John 
Shaw, 4 John Sheppherd, Jun., E. G. Shewkirk, Daniel 
Shier, Henry Shier, Martin Shier, John Shoals, Abraham 
Shotwell, John Shouldis, Chriftopher Shundel, Rich d Sib- 
ley, Henry Simmerman, Jofeph Simmons, George Simp- 
fon, Sam 1 Sp. Skinner, John Slidell, Jofliua Slidell, John 
Sloan, John Smart, Walter Smealee, George Smelzell, Al- 
bert Smith, Barnardus Smith, Chriftopher Smith, Johannis 
Smith, John Smith, 5 Jn° Sam. Smith, Richd Smith, Rob- 
ert Smith, Thomas Smith, 6 William Smith (3), John Snell, 7 
Randolph Snowden, Henry Sobouvon, Iiaac Solomons, 
Tiunis Somerindicke, Peter Sparling, William Spenns, 
John Spers, Hugh Spier, John Spier, Frederick Spirck, 
Gregory Springall, Hugh Sproat, Thomas Sproat, Jacob 
Spury, Melcher Stahl, Daniel Stallmann, George Stanton, 
Michael Stavener, John Steel, Robert Steel, Wm. Stepple, 

1 Adam Shamburg, an unlicenfed dealer in liquors, in Chatham 

2 Thomas Scorfield, a licenled retailer of liquors, "back of Henry 

3 William Scott, a deputy fherifF of the county of New York. He was a 
retailer of liquors on Broadway, near the Ofwego market. 

4 John Shaw, a jeweller doing bufmefs at the fign of "the Crown," in Naf- 
fau ftreet, near John ftreet. 

5 John Smith, a warden of the port. 

6 Thomas Smith, a merchant doing bufinefs in Hanover fquare. 

7 John Snell, an unlicenfed retailer of liquors, oppofite the fhip-yards, in 
the vicinity of our Market ftreet. 

a YORK LOYALIS ] •> - 

Jam< v - nfon, (> art.' Jofeph Steyner, John 

Stiles, Thomas Stilwell, Jan. Stockholm, Nicholas Stompf, 
Philip Stoneftreet, Benjamin Stout, 1 Benjamin Stout, .lun., 
John B. Stout, Richard Stout, Rob* rt Stout, Jam< - Striker, 
;>li Stringhans, Johannis Stroutter, James Stuart, Fran- 
cis Stuck, P. Stjiyvefant, Caleb Sutton. William Sutton. 
Godfred Swan, Will 1 Sw.miir. Chriftopher Sweedland, 
John Swere, Philip S\ k 

William Tailer, James Taylor, Willi r Taylor, William 
Taylor, David Thomas, Henry Thomas, Walter Thomas, 
David Thom pi <• ( I rhompfon, John Thompfbn (2), 

l'< •< r Thompion. Sam 1 Thopfon, Fred. Thonnaird, Albertus 
Tiebout, Robert Till, James T< .William I . Daniel 

Tooker, Silas Totten, G I . Jonathan rreemain, 

1 1 evillian,* Tobias Trim, James Tucker, Jonathan 

Twi ne, Jacob T\ ler. 

Harman I'rt. Benj n Underhill, Nicodemus I 

John Chriftopher Urmhaufter, G I . Henry Uftick, 

W I irk. 

Benjamin Stent, a wl Jer in wii 

■ bufinefi in Q 

W 1 ker ami a 

M I 1 lore, 1 1 


;n unlicenfcd liquor dealer in Murray 

II I ftick, one of the firn ■ I I I 

etc., whole infidelity t<> the non-importation agreement had excited tlie in- 


Fanconier Vallean, John Vance, Aug 1 Van Cortlandt, 
Corn 3 V. D. Bergh, Mindert Van Every, Jacobus Van Nor- 
dan, 1 Jacobus Van Norden, Jun., Andrew Van Tuyl, John 
Van Vorft, Wynandt Van Zandt, 2 Thomas Vardill, 3 
Thomas Vaffie, William Vermilye, Philip Verner. 

W m Waddell, 4 Ab m Wagg, John Wagna, George 
Waif, John Walker 5 (2), George Wall, John Walmfley, Ja- 
cob Walton, 6 Thomas Warner, 7 William Waterman, Jacob 
Watfon 8 (2), John Watts, James Wear, William Weaver, 
Jun., James Webb, William Webb, Arnold Webbers, 
Jacob Webbers, Philip Webbers, Michael Weber, Edward 
Webfter, Johannis Weil's, James Wells, Oliver Wells, 

dignation of the Sons of Liberty, April 6, 1775. Henry was alfo the pro- 
prietor of a retail liquor ftore on Potbaker's Hill (Liberty, near Naflau). 

1 Jacob Van Orden, a licenfed retailer of liquors, oppofite the Bear (Wqfli- 
ington) Market. 

2 Wynandt Van Zandt, one of the firm of Van Zandts and Keteltas, im- 

3 Thomas Vardell, a warden of the port. 

4 William Waddell, alderman of the North Ward, refiding in King (Pine) 

5 John Walker, a licenfed retailer of liquors, near the Breaftwork, in the 
lower part of Broadway. 

6 Jacob Walton, one of the firm of William and Jacob Walton & Co., 
importers. He was a member of the General Aflembly from this city ; and 
one of the moft influential citizens of his day. His wife, a daughter of Hon. 
Henry Cruger, died on the lft Auguft, 1782; and eleven days after, he fol- 
lowed her. 

7 Thomas Warner, an unlicenfed retailer of liquors at Leary Slip, near the 
Ferry flairs. 

8 Jacob Watfon, a merchant dealing in pig-iron, anchors, pot-afh kettles, 
negro wenches and children, horfes, etc. 

A ^ iiKK |.o\ ALIS , ,-, 

1 )/ 

Georg< Welfli, Thomas Welfh,' Chriftian Wernir, Evert 
W, if, [s, Gilbert \V< ffi lis,' Jno. Wetheriu ad, Thomas Wha- 
ley, Charles White, Henry White/ Robert White, Thomas 
Whit< . William White, John Whitman, (>< ore? Wighton, 
Thomas Wilkes, Jacob Wilkins, Robert Wilkinfon, John 
Michael Will, Abraham Willet, Georg< William. Benjamin 
William-. William Willian / Georg* Willis, Jun., Fred k 
Windifh, Geo Winfield, William Winterton, .In Wit- 
terhorn, Georg< Wittmer, John Witzell, John Woods, 
William Wragg, Thomas Wright, Georgi Wyley. 
\ Young, 1 [amilton Young," .John ^ 1 1 
(<- >rgi Zindall, Lodwick | V |. 

M -.rkct. 
' - 
'John Wetherh< King 

ftreet, II ffered the u h the mcrchani 

thai -ul. 

' Henrj W •■.. '. | i 


rctii uid in i - 

^ te, an unli . cry lane. 

Vv r in hanlu . nip oil, el . tili- 

ncis near < 

NVil ■ \\ iams, a licenfed retailer of liquors in the Bowery lane, 
1 Hamilton \ caler in crockery, di and filver 

lis, etc., in Little Dock ( 


Smith ( // illiam I ftreet. 
i^ 1 


We William Waddell, one of the Alderman of the City 
& County of New York, Efq r . and James Downes of the 
laid City, Gentlemen, Do hereby certify that we attended, 
the figning of the foregoing Repreientation, & that the 
Subfcribers hereunto attended Voluntarily, as Witnefs our 
hands, this 24 th day of October, One Thoufand, feven hun- 
dred, & feventy fix, 

William Waddell 

James Downes 

address to governor tryon. 

To His Excellency W m Tryon Efq r , Captain General 
and Governor in Chief in, and over, the province of New 
York, and the territories depending thereon in America 
Chancellor & Vice Admiral of the Same 

We the Inhabitants of the City & County of New 
York, beg leave to Congratulate your Excellency on your 
return to the Capital of your Government ; and to aflure 
you, that we feel the fmcereft Joy on this happy Event, 
which opens a Prolpecl: that we ihall once more experience 
the Bleffings of Peace and Security under his Majeftys 
aufpicious Government & Protection — bleffings which we 
formerly enjoyed under your Excellency's mild Adminif- 
tration, and which we Ardently wifh to have renewed. 

Perfevering in our Loyalty and Unfhaken attachment 
to our Gracious Sovereign, in this time of Diftrefs and 
trial, and anxious to teftify our affection for him, we have 

N W YORK LOYALIS rs. , -, 

embraced the Earlieft Opportunity to Petition the K 
Commiilioners they would City <$ Count) to 

his Maj( •■ Pea e. Although many of the mod refped- 
able Citizens, and a much . number of the Inferior 

Gaffes, have been driven Off by the Calamities oi War, or 
lent Prifoners to new England, and other diftant part-; 

we hope that the numbers itill remaining, and who 
have voluntarily fubicribed, ma) be deemed fufficient to 
intitle this diftrid to hi M whilft the fui 

which our abfent Fellow Citizens undergo for the 
Royal Caufe plead in their behalf with the CommilTioners 
I ■ :i whole well known humanity, benevolence, and en- 

■ .1 Sentiments, we hav< I I flatt< rii I 

I 1 en, \ we naturally look up for A 

we therefbn n tat you would be pleafed to prefent 

our Petition to the Commiflioners, and otherwiii I 
\ourtelt. that the Prayer oi it ma) be granted; as it is our 
pn li nt d< lire, and wh.r I n the ( . i arthly 

Felicity, to remain Subji I ol tin \)r\ Government in 
union with the 1 ' S 

s . ned b) 1)« tire, and in behalf <>t" the 
Inhabitants b) 

Daniel I [orsm indi n 

New York < > •' i6th, 

Ti> whirl) | write the I I r in an- 


New York 25th October — 1776. 


The Addrefs you deliver'd to me in behalf of the In- 
habitants of the City & County of New York, cannot fail 
of being highly agreeable to me, as it was, accompanied, 
with a dutiful Petition & reprefentation from them to the 
Kings Commiiiioners, for reftoring peace to his Majeftys 
Colonies — teftifying their Loyalty, to our moil Gracious 
Sovereign, profeiTing a Zealous attachment to the britifh 
Conftitution, and declaring the warmeit defire, for a tailing 
union with the parent ilate. 

Still folicitous as I am for the welfare of the Inhabitants 
of this Colony in General, and earneltly williing for a ref- 
toration of Public Harmony, and the re-eilabliihment of 
the ancient Constitutional authority of Government, I have 
cheerfully embraced the Opportunity of preferring this 
Day, the Addrefs to Lord Howe, who was pleafed to iigni- 
fy to me " he would take the earlieil opportunity of com- 
" municating with General Howe on the Occaiion." 

The Inhabitants may be allured I (hall fupport their 

willies with my beil Endeavours, although the Completion 

of it muft be left to the deciiion of his Majeltys Commif- 

fioners, in whom the higheil National confidence is repofed. 

I am with regard 

Sir, your moil Obedient Servant 

W M Tryon. 
To the Hon ble Chief Juftice Horfmanden. 


[The • 
capture a: 

ringing ai Icfini- 

tivc • 
aiul : 

that • 


•nith, ami I 

( ; 

M:. B 

I III TEN Wl'u>l' >N1 ! SMI rH'S I I I II RS. 


\ .1 r\ confiderable embarkation oi K took 

place laft week bound foi Nova S \ Canada one 

■ Tranfport was filled with foldiers of different corps 

tor Quebec & a number of tin 17 Light Dragoons arc 

difcharged & accompany th< R to the new Country 

— The nonfuch a 64 failed on thurfday laft for Eui 

with the K< :g< of Heffe Hannau The infpe&ion of the 

above veffels compofing a fl twenty two fail oi I 


Tranlport Ships employ'd me five days in the laft week. 
Mr. Benfon's abfcence and Mr Parkers indifpohtion throws 
the whole weight of Bufinefs upon me, and as they begin 
to appear difpofed to proceed with vigour upon the bun- 
nefs of the evacuation Mr Benfon's afliftance will be very 
acceptable — I fliall not prelume to make any obfervations 
on the advantages which our Country may derive from our 
exertions in this Line, as your Excellency is poflefled of a 
regular Detail of our proceedings upon the moll: important 
Points of our million and the attention which the Britifh 
Comm r in Chief has paid to our remonftrances &c there 
fully appear 

About two thoufand Heflians will embark to-morrow & 
the next day for Europe— and about one thoufand Blacks 
for Nova Scotia, further reprefentations to Sir Guy Carle- 
ton upon thefe fubjeds I conceive fuperfluous & fliall only 
attend to the examination of the (hips, regiftering the flaves 
& flopping fuch Property as is evidently free from the laft 
of their Proclamations Cafes of this kind have prefented 
themlelves and I have been fuccefirul — from the laft fleet 
we brought feven blacks but have not been able fully to 
defcide for want of the attendance of the Claimants. 

I think it neceffary to inform your Excellency that fome 
persons from the eaftern ports of the Continent have forged 
in this City a Number of Mr Morris's Notes of the laft 
emmition, the Principals are detected and upon applica- 
tion to the Commandant I obtained a Guard laft night, had 


two of them taken V confined s Gu) Carleton is fully 
difpofed to give every afliftance requil their further 

ion and punithment 

I have the honor to be with great refp< 

I li Excellenc) Gei W ton 


The Books which your Excellency requefted lhoukl 
In forwarded h\ your Letter of th< I were com- 

mitted to the Can of Col Cobb. 1 (hould ha om- 

panied them with a Letter but was confined to m) bed 
with a fever* fi n which 1 have only within a few 

da) r'd — 

The Ca B ould ha\ e h< < n forwarded 

i i 

^ - Kim. The reader ma 

the kuul • 

I ; Life of Louis the Fii 

teentl ; Life and F G I \mcr- 

. \ Rome and 

.1 G Memoirs; G 

ural II and 

I , Human U i derftanding ; R 

Charles tl which 

lilt we ma m a lcttt Smith's, th 

having been fern by him through Dr. 

\ ! mrney thi Rich- 

ard Worfley an : ' ■ \A I 


before this had not the workman I employ'd undertook a 
matter that he was not fufficiently acquainted with I was 
obliged to return them to him after they were fmilhed & 
employ another perfon — they fliall be forwarded as foon as 
they are compleat 

Incloled are two Letters which Came in the laft packett 
from England 

About fix thouland Heffians have i'ail'd for Europe & 
all the artillery & ftores are nearly Embarked & will lail 
immediately for the Weft Indies — Sir Guy Carleton ap- 
pears anxious to effect the Evacuation fpeedily — on Sat- 
urday laft at dinner he informed me of his determination 
to move with all pofTible expedition and faid that the 
only thing which detained him was the refugees whofe 
fituation humanity obliged him to attend to — they are dif- 
charging great numbers of their foldiers many of whom 
have applyed to me to know whether they can be per- 
mitted to remain here — I have taken the Liberty to give 
them encouragement & muft obferve to your Excellency 
that in confequence of numberlefs warm publications in 
our papers and the unconftitutional proceedings of Com- 
mittees I fuppose not lefs than fifteen thoufand inhabitants 
will be drove from this Country who are not confcious of 
any other Crime than that of refiding within the Britiih Lines, 
fome perhaps have afted tho' in general with reluctance 
& who I fliould fuppofe might be excufed upon this princi- 
ple that the fubjeds of any State or Country owe allegiance 

PREP riON , , - 

to the power- under which they refide and arc oblig 
to lend their afliftance when called for in return for pro- 
tection and the bei f S ty — however this is an 
opinion that the people at large will nor admit of in co 
quence or' which upon the we (hall find a ( 
of Inhabitants & a fed upon our I 
tiers by a people whole minds be i: . 

of their nt will >urs and 

perhaps la) the foundation of future mich 1 fup- 

pofe would be for th i i our Country to avoid 


[For W .It):!: \, \ 


I rec'd your Excellency 1 Lettei ol th< ti ft ulto and 
am always particularl) happy whenever m\ conduft me 
with your approbation I mult acknowledge myielf oblij 
In the advice rout. lined in the latter parr of the Leter rela- 
tive i i perfons going into the Coun- 
ty I prefun ma) not be 
improper to inform your Excel 1< n j of the principle - upon 
which I move and the Idea- I hold up to thefe people 
both in public and ; I ilu.u - held 
it .1- ridiculous tor Individuals to be I the opinion 
of their friends refpeding their ita\ in this Countr) affert- 
ing that b) applying to their own feelings the^ ma) be bet- 


ter able to determine that I am confident that every per- 
fon found within thole parts formerly porTeffed by the brit- 
ifli Troops would be entitled to and receive the protection 
of government at leaft from Injury and infult of the people 
untill a proper inveitigation can be made refpeciing their 
Conduct when if it appears that they have in any inftance 
run counter to the laws of their Country or extended their 
actions further than the perfect right of individuals would 
juttify & what they owd to the Goverment under which 
they refided they mull expect puniihment adequate to their 
Crimes, which I am confident would never be inflicted but 
in cafes which Juftice would warrant and which upon ex- 
amination would tend to confirm and render relpactable 
rather than injure our National Character — that the Gentle- 
men holding the reigns of Civil Goverment have a perfect 
Idea of the rights of the Citizen and are attached to the 
Conftitution of their Country that at the fame time they 
would exert the powers of Goverment to fhelter the mean- 
eft Character from perfonal injury the molt exalted need 
never flatter himfelf that his wealth or ltation can effeft the 
opperation of the Laws provided by his Conduct he has 
expofed himfelf to their lath — upon this foundation when 
prefled I give my opinion, but have rather been careful in 
avoiding political converfations being a fubject which in 
general ought to be handled with great delicacy particular- 
ly by Military Characters in the prelent fituation of affairs 
by the Bearer Enfign Shyter late of the German Troops I 


fend the Caps for the Boys Should they prove too 
lmall Cufliions within the Crown will make them fit & fett 
tahcr than without— the above mentioned Gentleman was 

A. C. r.i 1/ (;< ii I), Kin.hlo, k has obtained a verj honora- 
ble difmiifion & intends fettling in tin- Country, 

I am \. 

W illiam Stephens Smith, tlu 
t|,,n firing the ftru Imerican independei 

which was thai h, erry. 

V " 


tenant-Colonel Smitl | ur j 

lu> n " thai Mr. - , n -in- 

1 'hat M . - q .-. ren( 

en, in tlu 

the nam ■ ■■■ \\ • 5. Smith was 


afterward furveyor and u 

11 ,i in ,,,c G liranda, upon the 

• which h( \ 

< He died in i 


[The following appears to have been a cafe which was made up for fub- 
miffion to the law-officers of the crown, for their decifion refpecting the in- 
dividual liability, under the treaties, of Mr. Butler, a ftaff-officer under Gen- 
erals Howe, Clinton, and Carleton, for rent and damages of premifes within 
the city of New York, which were owned by Whigs who had retired from 
the city, and occupied by the Britiih officers during their occupation of New 
York from September, 1776, to November 25, 1783. 

It is interefting in itfelf, fimply as a legal paper; but it is efpecially inter- 
efting from the details of the government of the city while it was under 
martial law, which it furnifhes to the ltudent of local hiftory ; and from 
the feveral orders, which have been copied at length, and are embraced 
within it.] 

In the beginning of the year 1776, the Rebels (now 
Americans) ftrongly fortified the City & Ifland of New 
York & having collected a large body of continental 
troops & militia, exhibited every appearance of a deter- 
mined & vigorous defence 1 

But in the month of September following, the kings 
troops having effeded a landing on New York ifland, 2 the 

1 The preparations which were made at New York, in the beginning of 
1776, for the defence of the city, have been fully defcribed in the " Corre- 
fpondence of the Provincial Congrefs of New York ;" in the " Memoirs of 
General Lee," pp. 12-15; Booth's " New York," pp. 493-495; and in the 
extracts of letters in this volume, pp. 82—107. 

2 This landing, which was effected on the fifteenth of September, between 
Turtle Bav and the city, was attended with fome of the moft difgraceful 

5E OF WILLIAM Bl 1 LER, , , ( 

rebels made aver) precipitate retreat from the city, leav- 
ing their cannon \ greal quantities of military & naval 
ftores of ever) kind behind them' mod of thefi 
were lodged in private warehoufi . being no other 

public depofits, than the bridewell & powder houfe* 

Nineteen twentieths at leafl of the inhabitants with their 
families \ eflR is had left that cit) between the latter part 
of the year 177$ & the month of Jun< 177'' & thefe per- 
fons m;i\ be diftinguiflied uinl« r rln- following heads. 

Firft. Rebels or perfons in oppofition to his Majefty's 
government & in civil or military capacil 

S ond. Thofe who feared the confequences of remain- 
ing in a befieged to 1 

Third. Thofe who wt re loya i ' \ availed themfelvi of 
that opportunity to avoid militia dut) (which without dis- 
tinction all tin- male inhabitant fixteen \ fixtj 

the war — the American tr ■ in the ni' >(l daftardly manner 

The " enth 

ptcmbcr, I 

"Mem I I., pp. 100-106. 

which we were about rei in the cil 

means had been u 
The •'< I 1 in the Park. 

1 This Lth-wcftern hank of " the Freth- 

," in the vicinity of the inter: Pearl and Centre streets. 

< , h Harfin t 1 Wm. R 
rarifl II rfin jvirt <|n 


years were fubject to) & retired into different parts of the 
Country — and 

Fourth Some hundreds of perfons who were taken up 
& fent into confinement, or on parole in different parts of 
the country by orders of the Generals, Provincial Congrefs, 
or Committees on account of their loyalty 1 

On taking poffeffion of the city of New York, the Com- 
mander in chief was pleafed to direct William Butler Efq 
to take an account of all the derelict property, & make 
report every evening of his proceedings to Gen 1 Robertfon 
then Commander of the City 2 

Mr Butler accordingly took an account of all the property 
found in the different houfes & ftores, that were abandoned 
by the proprietors or tenants, & reported in writing to the 
General (as he had been directed) the quantity & nature of 
luch property 

A diitribution of the various ftores found in the city was 
therefore made to the feveral departments and 

To the Commiffary General 

Commanding officer of Engineers 
Commiffary of Artillery 
Quarter Matter General, and 
Barrack Matter General 

1 See letter of John Varick, jr., ante pp. 91-93. 

5 " General Robertfon, then commander of the city." While he com- 
manded the city he lived in William ftreet, near John, and at 109 Pearl 
ftreet; while governor of the province, in the Beekman Houfe, near Turtle 

i LSE I »] WILLI \M Bl I LER, j -] 

fuch parts of those \uy> ame within their refpedive 

departments were delivered for hi-- majeftys fervice The 
furplus confiding of naval ftores were applied to the ufe of 
his majeft) - na\ y 

Accounts were alio taken of the vacant dwelling houfi - 
\ ftorehoufi • . diftinguifhing the proprietors whether 
Rebels or friends ro government a the perfons em- 

ployed on this duty from tin ir own knowledge or the beft 
information could afc< rtain 

For the purpoli of carrying on the bufinefs of his majef- 
tys naval yard, lots of ground & wharfs were required, as 
well as dwelling houfes and ftorehoufes ; th< former for the 
accommodation of the different officers, and their offio . \ 
the latter tor the fecurit) of public ftores & materials. For 
this purpofe, feveral houfes on the K.ut river, \ large lot> 
of ground were inclofed, \ in addition to the night guard 
compofed of tin artificers employed in the yard, a fubal- 
tern's guard from the troops in garrifon, was conftantly 
mounted t<»r the prott ction th< n i <\ 

On application to tin- Admiral, tin- legal proprieto 
fome ot tin lots, who wire then within the Britifh lin< - 
were allowed .u\ annual rent for the fame 

The different departments of the army, required dwelling 
houi< \ lore houfes, alio wharfs & lot- ot ground contig- 
uous to the rivers tor tip m purpofi - <>t tin ir appoint- 

Mr Butler was alio directed to affifl the Ouartei Matter 



General in making & fettling the arrangem ts of Stores, 
wharfs &c which being done, to the Commifiary General's 
department, 1 feveral wharfs & ftorehoufes on the Eaft river, 
were affigned for the receipt & fecurity of provifions from 
on board the Transports from Europe, & proper houfes for 
officers. And on the North or Hudfons River feveral 
vacant lots of ground contiguous to that river were en- 
clofed for a forage yard & wharfs on that river were alfo 
occupied for the landing of fuch forage — 

To the other departments were affigned houfes ftores 
wharfs & lots of ground as near each other as poffible. It 
was abfolutely neceffary that the public ftores ftiould be 
near each other on account of the centinels required to pro- 
ted them, from being let fire to or plundered 

Many of the houfes, ftores & wharfs occupied in the 
Commiffary Generals department, were the property of per- 
fons then under the protedion of government & faithful 
fubjeds to the King. On reprefenting their fituation to 
Dan 1 Chamier Efq r then Commifiary General, it was 
agreed that rent for thofe houfes & ftores (the property of 
fuch loyalifts) (hould be paid, & in order that fuch rent 
might be fairly & equitably afcertained & fettled, two 
refpedable & difinterefted Citizens were requefted to value 
& afcertain the annual rents of fuch ftores : which was ac- 
cordingly done ; & their Certificate declaring the rent of 

1 " The Commiffary-general 's department." Daniel Chamier was rhe 
commiflary-general of the Britifh forces at that time. 


1 S ) 
ll " ( >m the 1) • Commiffa 

in whofe charge fuch ft tifying the rime the 

1;ln cupied in that department, rent was pundually 

paid, & i«> continued to be paid until the evacuation of 
N \ ork in 1783. The refidut oi the hou \ 

wharfs belonging to Pei 1; Lines, 

lli ''' 11 ■■ R S occupied as fuch without 

any ch . 

Ar ' : tne "" V " lodated with quarters the 

departments with houfi 

mentioned and the I; .; irir 

' number of houfes in dim ■ the 

" n " 1 " n 'I • i) the indulge 1 - oi 

the Commander in « hi. r. Commandant B ick Ma 
( """- i1 I will, liable • turned our 

mon 1 \ return was then I , be 

made oi all houl with the proprii . b) 

whom ,,,,,i: Ufo the number 

"' h " I''" ' x edition of eai h houfe, 

with the itr. et & numb( 

The Inhabitants from the arrival of hi \I | 

rill the evacuation of N< \ \ 

from the payment ol lV kind either for the pur- 

pofe of lighting the lamps, or cleaning the city, rej ail oi 

r,,r P un ther public works,aswell as 

the mainti nance of the j 

The markets w« re raifed abov< hundred P ( foi 


the neceffaries of life. The landlords from the demand for 
houfes raifed their rents on an average at four times the ium 
fueh houfes had rented previous to the rebellion. And the 
vaft number of merchants & others daily arriving in the 
city was the caufe of a conftant increafe in the article of 
houfe rent. 

At this time, December 1777, the poor were greatly dif- 
trefled : & General Robertfon then Commandant of New 
York was pleafed to appoint nineteen gentlemen from the 
different wards of the city, to iolicit contributions for their 
relief. 1 Thofe Gentlemen collected fuch a lum as afforded a 
temporary relief. Thefe gentlemen with the Magistrates of 
Police were then formed into a veitry & the alms houfe & 
poor of the city were committed to their care & latterly 

1 The following is a copy of the proclamation under which this committee 
was appointed, copied from Hugh Gaine's "New York Gazette: and the 
Weekly Mercury.'" No. 1366, Monday, Dec. 29, 1777. 


Commandant in the City of New York. 

"\A/HEREAS it is reprefented to me that the Poor of this City cannot be 
properly relieved without fome Provifion be made for that Purpofe, as 
there is not a veftry at prefent in this City to aflefs the Quotas of the Inhab- 
itants, and to Superintend the Poor as formerly ; and it appearing to me 
highly reafonable that fome Method mould be adopted for their Relief, and 
Elias Dejbrojjes, Miles Sherbrooke, Ifaac Low, Charles Nicoll, Gabriel H. 
Ludlow, James J auncey, Richard Sharpe, Charles Shaw, Hamilton Young, 
Theophylact Backe, Rem Rapalje, Jeronimus Aljiyn, William Walton, 
William Laight, Willett Taylor, William I flick, Peter Stuyvefant, Nich- 
olas Bayard, and John Dyckman, of this City, Gentlemen, having offered 

oi WILLIAM Bl I I.I lv. , , - - 

1 5 "> 

tin pumps, lamps \<. This veftrj had a Treafurer & S< - 
n tar) the former to receive & paj monies on tlx ir account 
& tin- latter ro keep minutes of their proceedings. Proper 
fund- tor the i xei ution of the rrult repofed in them v. 
neceflary — therefore the of fuch houfes \ ftort 

re not wanted for the fervid /eminent & the fer- 

ries V markets were appropriated n> the funds tor tin- vef- 
try 'In fe< arifing from licenfes \ excife, fines infli 
for breach oi orders, Proclamations of the peace, 01 other 
offences were alio added V ordered to be paid into the 
hands of their Treafurer. II- wa accountable for the pay- 
m< 1 ipt oi all monies <>n tin ir account, nor onl) to 

the Veftry, hut when required, furnifhed t h» Commander in 
C'liii t \ Commandant, with his accounts Win n h( 
r< c< ipt tor rent fuch rea ipt ip( 1 nil d that the fum had b< 1 n 
paid 1') i'ViIi rs * » t the Commander in Chi< t. 

to take upon them! I- il herein. .1 in 
them: I havi thei them t" folicii ami 
receive the Donations of the Charitable and w appropri- 
ate the Lime to the R .'. and 


I '■ iint, 

■ ■ 

. ML G. 

imandant of New York. 
1 It appears from the rej n Smythe, the ( \ dry, 

that the "C Year's Rent, the 1 it May, laft, ( 1 

oi Sundry Perfons occupyii II which they had no Claim or Title, 

as per Particulars, in the Hand- of John Si . I : -44 -'■ 10J., 


Whenever the proprietors of houfes fo rented out by the 
veftry came within the Britiih lines, & made application to 
the Commandant, their pretentions were referred to the vef- 
try, & on their report & recommendation, the property was 
reftored — and 

When the Proprietors of houfes or (fores in the king's 
fervice or barrack department came in, & made fimilar ap- 
plications their pretentions were referred to the Magiifrates 
of Police, & Barrack Mailer & on their report the property 
was reftored, unlefs in fome inftances, where his Majefty's 
fervice would not permit. 

The wharfs till the firit January 1779 had been occupied 
by his majefty's Ships & tranfports in government fervice, 
without paying any wharfage, but as many of them be- 
longed to Loyalifts, it was determined, that on the proprie- 
tors making oath as to the property, & that no perfons with- 
out the Britiih lines (with an exception in regard to any 
Copartner in fuch wharf) were interested or concerned 
therein the Commandant gave his permiffion to fuch pro- 
prietor to occupy his wharf or part of a wharf & receive 
the ufual & cuftomary wharfage, on condition that fuch 
proprietor kept the faid wharf in good & fufficient repair. 

Capt. Kennedy & Mr. Lefferts owned one of the wharfs 
in the CommifTary Generals department. Captain Kennedy 
was allowed & paid by the CommifTary General one dollar 

while the expenditures "in removing the Dirt and Filth from the Streets and 
Barracks, filling up Slips, &c" amounted to £900. 


per day for his half; bur as Mr. Leflferts was without the 
Britifli lines, nothing was allowed him. This wharf as well 
a- .ill others in the Commiflar] General's department & the 
Hon kept in conftant repair at the expenfe oi { 

ernment Wages V marc rial- being very high, had the 
Owners been in lull pofleffion of their property & rented 
the fame tor any moderate fum, man) of them would have 
b< « n Inn rs, had the) be< n oblig< il to have kept the premi- 
rj ri pair. 

On th \ ••' 1783 a pa k< - from England 

arrived al N York fe brought over the preliminary articles 
of peace, V on tin- 8' "t tin fame month, ! M 
proclam" declaring .1 ceflation oi hom'liti< publicly 

read by tin Town Major ar tin City hall. 
. Before the arrival of the preliminary viz* on the 

is 1 < bruai II I ' -. N G ( arleton iffu( d a 

gen< ral order in thefe words 

"Ordei I [< ad Q . \ "^ k Feb 18 178 ; Should 

"there be am perfon, at prefenl within the lines, whofe 
•• liouii - or lamb have been withheld from them on account 
"oi fuppofed oflfen nil the Crown, they 

ncral in 1772; in 1774 he wa 

ed Captain-Gcnci G . where he commanded during 

the camp 6, under (1 .In 

Sir H I mander-in 

ica ; and at war lie return. I 

where he I to the titles and efta.1 I D II lied in 
I eighty-three \ 


"are denred to make their refpedive claims to the Officers 
" of Police in New York on Longland or on Staten 
" ifland, who will report the fame to the Commander in 
"chief. All perfons without the lines, who have aban- 
" doned Eftates within are defired to fend their claims to the 
" offices of police aforefaid, and all perfons occupying Ef- 
" tates within the above defcriptions, are ftridly enjoined to 
" take due care thereof, as they will be made anfwerable for 
" any damage, wafte or deftrudion, that may henceforward 
"be committed on the fame. They will likewife permit 
" any perfon authorized from either of the above mentioned 
" offices to viht the laid Eftates, & take Inventories of all 
" effeds thereunto belonging. 

"O. L. Delancay Adjutant General." 1 

Another order was afterward iflued in thefe words 
"New York 27 March 1783 — Orders — In order to fave 
" much unneceflary trouble Notice is hereby given, That no 
" perfons whatever are to be admitted into the Britiili Lines, 
" without having previoufly obtained Paflports for that pur- 
" pofe from the Commandant except thofe who come to & 
"go from the markets. They will report themfelves to 
" the Police, whofe permiffions to take out horfes &c will 

1 Oliver L. De Lancey, Ton of General Oliver De Lancey, of New York. 
He succeeded Major Andre, as adjutant-general of the army. He became, 
fubfequently, deputy-adjutant-general of England, barrack-mafter-general of 
the Britifh army, a member of Parliament, and a lieutenant-general of the 
army; and died in Edinburgh in 1820. 

•': WILLIAM Bl I Li R, I , -, . 

1 ^) 

"be fufficient —Any perfons who may have conic in with- 
"out leave are dire&ed to report themfelves immediately 
"the Commandants office, otherwife they will be fubjed to 
"very diiagreeable confequences. The General offi 
"i ommanding in th< . : diftrids, will fee that particular 

^'attention i> paid to this order In th< at the out- 


•• O. L 1) : \ ljutani G< neral." 

Thefe orders wire iffued prior to tin- arri\al of the pre- 
liminary articles, man) perfons (who hail been \«r\ adive 
during the rebellion) were in confequence admitted within 
ih< Bririih lines V in conforming to the mode prefcribed in 
tin i' re permitti d to \ i< w th< ir I I ik< In- 

ventories & unmolefted or infulted to return. 

rival of the preliminary article- fome hun- 
dreds (it not thoufand | <>t perfons who had been in oppo- 
sition to his maji nmem were allowed free ingrefs 
& n ^ r r< i '<> V from N< w York on obtaining paflports tor 
that purpofe, which were eafilj obtained on the application 
of their friends But many perfons whole only crime was 
that of loyalty to theii v , on going a few miles 
into the Country without the Britilh Lint feverely 
punifhed & obliged to return, not being permitted to \iiit 
their n lations \ friends after an abfence of fonru \< i 

A number of refugees under the command of Major 
Ward who glorioufl) defended the Blockhoufi at Bull's 

1 The attack on the block-houfe at Bull's Ferry, July 20, I 


Ferry on the 20 July 1780 againft a very fuperior force of 
the enemy in the autumn of the year 1782 propofed to 
the Commander in chief to remove & fettle in the Prov- 
ince of Nova Scotia, on lands to be granted them & provi- 
fions & fome other aid from government. He acceded to 
their propofal, & about fix hundred men, women & children 
embarked for that province in the latter part of that year. 

After the arrival of the preliminary articles & before the 
definitive Treaty arrived, from the vindictive & perfecuting 
difpofition of the Americans, the refugees & other Loyal- 
ifts were cut off from all hope of remaining in the States 
after the Britifh troops lliould be withdrawn. They there- 
fore made application to Sir Guy Carlton to be tranfported 
with their families & effects to Nova Scotia, on the fame 
terms as the other refugees had gone there, that under the 
protection of his Majefty's government, they might find an 
afylum from the tyranny & oppreffion of their Country- 
men. They were accordingly fent to fuch parts of that 
province as they requefted. In confequence of fuch re- 
moval many of the derelict Eftates became vacant, where- 
upon the Commander in chief was pleafed to iffue the fol- 
lowing order 

Headquarters New York 16 June 1783 Orders 

" The proprietors of houfes or lands lately evacuated will 
" apply to Lieut Gen 1 Campbell for the porTeffion of those 

the moft defperate affairs of the war. It has not received that place in our 
hiftorical annals which its importance demands. 

>] WILLIAM HI II. I R, ,, ,, 

■ on Long iiland, To Brigadi< r Gen< ral Birch tor thof 
"York ifland & to Brigadier General B for thofe on 

" Staten ifland. Thefe General will be pleafed to 

" caufe all fuch Eftates to be immediately delivered uj 
••the Projv t their att unlefs where they may 

•• \< e fufficient reafons for detaining them ionic rime lon« 
•• which reafons the) will report to the ' ler in chi< t. 

•• In like manner, all Eftates which (hall hereafter 
■• uated are to be furrendered up 

•• ( ). I . 1 ) I Adjutant G ral " 

1 ii the 16 of J me to the da) ol ' N 

\ irk the propert) which had be< i time to time 

v .i. at< '1 v..i But man) houf< - 

\ tores abfolutel) I »m the 1 

prietors until th< ition of tin city. Ever) pains was 

taken to prevent wafte or d or improper perfons 

from pofTeffing fuch houfes after th< then : fhould 

have left them as will app< th( following garrifon 

order iffued b) Brigadii G Birch Commandanl ol 

\ ^ ork 

"Garrifon orders 29 April 1783 In order to pr< 
" any wafte or deftruftion in the houfes under the di red ion 
"of the veftry or Barrack offi e is hereby given 

"that the prefent pofli of houfes under the ab 

" defcription are on no account to quit them, without giv- 

B) ■., 

z 1 


" ing previous notice to the Commandant, that an ex- 

" amination may be made into their ftate ; & on removal 

" the keys are to be lodged at his office No 6l Wall 

" Street ; any peribn prefuming to take porTeffion of fuch 

" houfes, without permiffion from the Commandant, mult 

" expedit the moil difagreeable confequences. By order of 

" the Commandant 

" E. Williams Major of Brigade" 1 

In order that juitice might be done & that all peribns 
who had any claims on the Britiih government, during the 
time his Majeitys troops were in that part of North Amer- 
ica now called the United States, & that the equity of the 
claims of fuch public creditors might be fully investigated 
his excellency Sir Guy Carlton was pleafed to iflue the 
following orders. 

Head Quarters N York 4 May 1783. Orders — 

" As many claims & demands have been exhibited to the 
" Commander in chief for property fupplied to the Britiiri 
" army or officers in the feveral public departments fince 
" the 19 th day of April 1775 & as it is expedient that the 
" nature, extent & validity of fuch claims & demands 
" iliould be known & afcertained in order that right & 
"juitice may be adminiitered — Gregory Townfhend Efq r 

1 E. Williams, brigade-major; probably Elijah Williams, of Deerfield, 
Maflachufetts, who had entered the army in 1775 ; retired on half-pay after 
peace was reftored ; and died in 1 793. 

01 \\ ll.I.l \\l Bl I I. IK, ; 

■ V mr Commiflar) General, Captain Armftrong Deputy 
"Quartei General, Ward Chipman I . Richard Harrifon 
"Efq \ Mr John Hamilton A i appointed a Board 

" of Commiflioners, to receive \ examine all fuch claims \ 
"demands, to call tor & in the proofs that ma) be 

14 exhibited thereof \ to regifter the lame preparator) to a 
•• farther liquidation. The faid Commiflion< rs or an) th 
'• ot them are authorized & din for the ab< 

"purpofe, at fuch place V on fuch days & times as the) 
-may deem proper All fuch perfons having fuch claims 
■• \ demands, .w<- to exhibit the fame with the proofs \ 
" s ouchers before thi 1 1 

O. I . l)i i \n> <» Adjutant Gen< ral 

This Board met from tin time <>t their appointmei 
continued to meet, rill within a ver) fliort time before the 
evacuation «>t N York & man) claim \ demands 
the arm) \ public departments prefented to them. 
Man) ot thofe claimants were defired to tall for their 
pap. rs b) .\i\\ ertift m< nts in tin fe \\< i 

"Board oi claim- j^ Odober 1783. The undermen- 

.. ret'u- 
n driven from 1 
W 1 Chipmai had entered the army 

as deputy-mufter-mafter-general 
lie retired to \ A Bl It, where lie 

eneral, foli . jnj 

prcfident and acl -.11 I at Fredei J24. 

John I lamilton ; fee Not z, i e 127, 


" tioned Perfons who left papers with this board are defired 
" to call at No 32 Queen Street. By order. 

" Rob t N. Auchmuty Secry" 

All the before mentioned orders were printed in the pub- 
lic Newfpapers & continued to be publiihed for many 
months fucceffively — 

The following advertifement, which is but a repetition of 
that which had been frequently publiihed even before the 
peace will {hew the intention of the CommifTary General to 
do juftice to all perfons having any demands on his de- 

CommifTary General's office, New York 13th Novr 1783 

" All perfons having demands againft the CommifTary 
" Generals department, for provifions, fuel, forage, itore-rent, 
" veflel hire &c are defired to call & receive payment for 
" the fame before the 22 d I nit. after which no moneys will 
" be paid." 

In the fixth article of the Definitive Treaty, it is declared 
" That there lliall be no future confifcations made, nor any 
" profecutions commenced againft any perion or perfons for 
" or by reafon of the part which he or they may have taken 
" in the prefent war ; & that no perfon ihall on that account 
" fuffer any lofs or damage either in his perfon, liberty or 
" property, & that thofe who may be in confinement on 
" fuch charges, at the time of the ratification of the treaty 
" in America fhall be immediately fet at liberty, & the pro- 
" fecution fo commenced be difcontinued" 

: WILLIAM Bl IL1.R, .£- 

And although the Definitive Treat} is bur an echo of the 
preliminary articles, which arrived in America in the month 
of April 1783 yet th< U giflal in oi th< Si I \- w 

York had on th< i; dayoi March in that year, pafled an afl 
oi which the following is a cop) & which ad is unrepealed. 

•rain trefpaffes, 15- it enatied b) the people of the 
"Stat< oi New i ork n S k Affembly, & 

"it is hereb] I b) the authority of the fame That it 

"(hall & ma\ be lawful foi rfon or perfons who 

"or nhabitants of thi v who In reafon of the 

" invafion oi the enemj l< fi his, hi r or their place or pi; 
•■ oi abod( . \ who ha irily put themii Ives 

lively into thi powt r of the enemy, fin< c th< j 
"fpeftivel) left their plaa oi abode, his, her or thei II 
*" Ex( cutors or A ,,•: i I 

i an) perfon or perfons, who may ha pied, in- 

jured or d< ftroyi d his, h( r or tin I ,| ,, r 

"perfonal, within the power oi the enemy, an) 

rfon or p. rfons who .ill have pur- hafed i ved 

"an) null good . her or theii 1 1 

"Ex'ors or Adm'ors in an) court oi within this 

! ' r havii the fame, in which ad ion, if 

- the lame fliall be brouj rfon or pen, 

'" who hav< <>. ■ upied, injured, or d< (troyi d, or pur. hafed or 

eived fuch real or perfonal I. M( |. the 

" '> fendant oi Defei dai l fhall be held to bail, V it am 


" fuch action iliall be brought in any inferior Court, within 
" this ftate, the fame iliall be finally determined in iuch 
" Court, & every fuch action Iliall be confidered as a tranfi- 
" tory action. That no Defendant or Defendants iliall be 
" admitted to plead in juitification any military order or 
" command whatever of the enemy for fuch occupancy, in- 
" jury, destruction, purchafe or receipt, nor give the fame in 
" evidence on the general iffue" 1 

Mr Butler having fettled all his public & private ac- 
counts in the month of June 1781, obtained the Com- 
mander in chief & Commifiary General's leave to come to 
England, & has not fince that time been in America And 
at that time, both countries were at war, & the garrifon of 
New York was in the poflefTion of his Majelly's Troops : 
& all perfons civil & military & all property & in all parts 
of the Britiih lines, were fubject to, & under the abfolute 
controul of the Commander in chief — 

" On the 24 th day of May kit, the Legiflature of the 
" State of New York pafled an Aft entitled an Act to amend 
" an Act entitled an Act for relief againit abfconding or ab- 
" fent Debtors; & to extend the remedy of the ad entitled 
" an ad for granting a more effectual relief in cafes of cer- 
" tain trefpafles & for other purpofes therein mentioned" 2 

1 Chap, xxxi., Laws of 1783. This is the ib-called Trefpafs Aft of New 

2 Mr. Butler was in error concerning the date of this law. It was pafled 
on the fourth of May, 1784, and is known as Chap. liv. of the Laws 
of New York, Seventh Seffion. — 1 Greenleaf, 114. 


V opyof this ad cannot at prefent be procured but the 
mode of proceeding on thai aft is fully pointed our in the 
advertifements in the New York papers & which in fub- 
ftance is as follows A. R notio That in purfuance 

of that at. an a&ion of Trefpafs had been by him com- 
menced C. D. -i th< Mayors court of the C t) of 
N< ■ York, that the Writ in the faid ram. had been 
turned, nor found, b) the v that a «1- claration 
thereupon filed in the Clerks offi • of tin Cit) oi N 
\ irk againft the faid C. 1). b) the faid A. B. agreeabl 
the mode prefcribed in & by the faid »r the ui< \ 

cupation oi a dwt lling houfe, \\ ith the appurtenanci oi 
"the faid A. B. by bin ( D during the late war 

•• between the United Stat » of A G B 

" while the Cit) oi N \ was in rh< poffeffion of the 
" f '' ' ' \ '" ; : ' oi the Kit g of G B tain" and that it 
was thereb) publiflied \ notified that unlefs the faid C. I). 

'"' , "- app< within fix months 

the datt ol .< nt, a judgm< nt would be 

enfc n nfl the faid C I). \ a writ of inquiry would be 

granted to afcertain the faid A. B demand againft the 
C. D. for the trefpaffes afbrefaid agreeable to the inten- 
tion & meaning of the faid a : \ the pradio oi the (aid 

Mr Butler happens to be one or' tin fem Oflicei em- 
ployed in his Majeftys fervice, who ha left any < lati in the 
province oi Neu York \ four fuits have been commenced 


againil him, under the lait mentioned act, of which actions, 
notice has been given in the terms above mentioned 

The firft of thefe fuits is brought by Mr LefFerts already 
mentioned : the caufe of action for the ufe & occupation of 
a dwelling houfe & dock with the appurtenances of the 
faid Jacob LefFerts. The fecond is by a William Smith, 
for the ufe & occupation of a dwelling houfe with the ap- 
purtenances of the faid William Smith. The third is by a 
Thomas Henderfon, as well for the ufe & occupation of one 
dwelling houfe, rtore houfe & dock with the appurtenances 
as for the deitruction of one ftore houfe, & diverfe quantities 
of houfehold & kitchen furniture of the faid Thomas Hen- 
derfon by the faid Will: Butler And the fourth is by a 
Tho s I vers 1 for taking & carrying away of diverfe new 
cables, a large quantity of cordage, nails, hemp, black tar, 
pitch, & feveral utenfils & tools commonly ufed in the 
rope making bufinefs, the property of the faid Thomas 
Ivers by him the faid Will: Butler. It is of little confe- 
quence to enter into an inquiry with refpect to the fituation 
of the feveral Plaintiffs in thefe fuits Mr Butler had left 
the feat of war a length of time before there was the leait 
profpeci of peace & had he remained until the final evacua- 
tion, his perfon & property were equally free & and indem- 
nified by the preliminary articles & the Definitive treaty, if 
thofe Treaties had any validity, or there can be any public 
faith or honour in the ftates. But it has been lately deter- 

1 Thomas Ivers was one of the popular " Committee of One Hundred." 

•i WILLIAM i;i I 1.1 .K, ]() 

mined in the Mayors Court of Ne\i York, that all who held 
houfes under the authorit] of the Commander in chief 
fliould be exempted from the repayment of rent: but that 
thofe who held under the Commiflary general fliould be 
liable, becaufe Ik- had no authorit) by the laws of war to 
raiie a revenue, bur that his power was ufurj 

A Mr. B itler during the whole of the rime he u 
in America, afled only in a fubordinate capacity & under 
the orders of hi- fuperiors namely the Commander in Chief 
V Commandant, to whofe orders, he \ all others in rhe dif- 
nt departments \\<r<- bound to pay implicit obedience 
befid< 3 the orders of the h< aA of that d< partment 

Ir i- tin r< tun- afked 
i Shall M . B tier in his private capacity be anfwerable 
i" thii . done in hi- official i h nformity 

to the i : hi- fuj 

2 Suppofing the Crown ind< bted to the Plaintiffs in thofe 
fuits, tor the article .ill hi- pri tune 

li<- anfwerable tor thefe demands? 
Do not tin proceedings in thofe caufes defeat the 1)<- 
finitive Treat) v .in- not th< Afts on which thofe nut- 
are brought \ iolations of the faith of the United St 
pledged on figning the preliminary articles \ execut- 
ing the Definitive Tn at 

I What fteps he ought to purine & whether it would 

' The Definitive Ti •'•,, i n the " four- 

( F the 1 ." |anuarv 14, 


not be advifable to enter his appearance to defend 
thofe lints'? 
5 t0 Whether if he omits making any defence & fufFers 
judgment to go againft him, he can claim compenfa- 
tions for any lofs or damage he may fuftain, by reafon 
of fuch judgment 4 ? 

Account of Houfes, Lands, Debts & effects the property 
of William Butler in the City & province of New York 
which he was obliged to leave. 

Bayard's Purchafe on the Mohaivk River. 

In this tract Mr B. had 1050 Acres, for cuny. 

which he was offered 8s. P acre 420 o o 

Delaware Tract 

This Trad lies between the River Dela- 
ware & the Sulquehannah, adjoining to lands 
belonging to General Provofte & the Hon ble 
Henry White Lawrence Cartwright Efq r & 
others for which has been offered in peacea- 
ble times 6s P acre for the whole — Mr But- 
ler's fhare of this tract is one entire piece con- 
taining 3994 acres, fay a 6s 1198 4 o 

Butter Hill Tract 
This Tract lies on the Well fide of Hud- 
fons river & within half a mile of it & about 

Carried forward 1618 4 o 

I] WILLIAM Bl 1 l.l.k, j -j 

Brought forward 1618 4 o 
fixt) i:ii ; < - from New York. This land is 
well known by the name of tin v . as it 
lies between tli«- two great hill- known by 
the names of Gn it B tt< 1 Hill & Little 
Butter Hill. It contain- 632 acre- tor which 
Mi \) .• flfered 16s P ; J 12 o 

Lies within l miles of the above Trad, \ 
contain- of land with the • 

timber. l r is known In the name of the 
Black Swamp & is within ] milt - of the 
1 >n works of Co M - 
tin w \ Mi I laufenclev< • \ was alwa) - 
vahu d a 20s P a - o o 

Lies within 7 miles of N< w Windfi 
\i w burgh \ contains 1 es of land 

''if of \1 ( . int in >■ 

( I • irward 1 \8$ i r > o 

I • l Haver- 

Itriw, between that 

Mr. Heflei in the upper part of what 

R Idand count 

in attempt ; and he had received th 

fi deration of the 

)ly Mr. G -let, a member of "the Committee of One 

Hundred," and grandfat) 
ner of B and Kail Nineteenth ftrcct, in 

102 O O 



Brought forward 2485 16 

York in the year 1772 for which Mr B paid 

them 17s P acre 


This Trad lies in the middle of the Town, 
within a quarter of a mile of the Courthoufe 
& joins the Glebe land. It contains 210 acres 
for which W. B. was offered 40s P acre This 
land is within 60 miles of New York 420 

Ten Stone Meadow 
This tract lies 7 miles weft of Hudfon's 
River & is known by the name of New- 
burgh Ridge, about 7 miles diftant from 
Newburgh & New Windfor It adjoins to 
the lands of John Leake Efq rl & others & 
contains 270 acres for which 40s P acre has 

been offered 54° 

Sachandaga Tract 

This Trad lies on the Sachandaga river 
in the County of Albany about 15 miles 
from Sir John Johnfton's 2 It contains in all 
52000 acres of which W. B. was to have 
12000 This Land was bought from the 

Carried forward 3547 16 o 

1 John Leake, one of the founders of the Leake and Watts Orphan Houfe 
at Bloomingdale. 

2 Sir John Johnfon's — " Johnfon Hall," near the village of Johnftown, 
Fulton county, New York. 

•i WILLIAM iU I I.l.R, | - j 

Brought forward 354.7 if) o 
Indian- about rln Mar 177: or 1771 in the 
names of Col 1 Butler, Hendrick Benfon, 
Dunk Lefferts, John & Rob' Leake Co. tor 
which the Indians were paid £12 V thou- 
fand By fome means or other, tin- patent 
from government did nor iflin : \ the 
troubles beginning there was no waj oi 
obtaining it. as the ( i oblige d 

to come awaj W. B. paid for 12000 a< 
of the above Tract a! L'12 P thoufand which 
nuk< - the amo' ot hi- claim to h<' 144 o o 

Thefe Lands lie on the Eafl fide <>t Hud- 
River, oppofite to 'In Halt moon. )l 
miles north oi the Cit) i>t Albany, & contain 
84.0 1 which were proved vacant \ 
granted b) tru Governor V Council oi N 
"i i or about the year 17' | to R 

Leake Co. Thefe Land- were held in po£ 
i« iiion by Anth'\ Bratl Hendrick Vrouman 
\ others, who rather than move off bou{ 
them at 2os per acre \ paid £100 down to 
bind the bargain. The remaining £740 was 
to be paid in three annual pa\ m< nts \\ ith in- 

Carried forward 1601 <>i o 


Brought forward 3691 16 o 
tereft W. B* claim is for one fourth of £840 
the fum that it fold for to the above pur- 
chafers 210 o o 

Two Lots of Land at the River fide near the College at 
New Yoi k » 

The eligible fituation of the place, induced 

Mr B. & others to make this ground which 

they verily did entirely — & the firtt itep 

towards it, was by obtaining a grant from 

the Governors of the College into the river 

from high water mark to low water mark, an 

extent of 100 feet They then dug into the 

fide of the hill 75 feet by 60 & with horfes 

& carts carried the earth to the front which 

was inclofed by the wharf; fo that when the 

lots were completely finiiTied they mealured 

60 feet in front on the river & 157 deep on 

the land fide. The wharf in front coft Mr 

B. £60. The front fence & a fmall houfe 

in the garden coft him £60 & he was offered 

£100 with the above expence for each of 

the lots. When the Kings troops arrived at 

Staten ifland, the Rofe & Phenix 2 men of 

Carried forward 3901 16 o 

1 King's (now Columbia) College, New York. 

8 The Rofe and Phenix, with three tenders, paffed up the river, as ftated 


1 \ s 

rward 1901 16 o 

war w< n ed up t . \ 

the Rebels in order to annoy them thought 


on my ground, 
which purpofe they filled up my wharf & all 
the ; nber on I . which th< ir 

purpofi red but afterwards In tak- 

ing up the whan", the water in a Ihort l 
flowed ii ed all away, by which nu 

he loft what he might have obtained thai 120 o o 

1 } "00 

A fine lot oi 1 iund in N 5 <>rk 

I which t 

new Brick houfe in front & a wooden houfe 
in the r« ar called M j \\ 

which E ' ;« Mr. ii. paid down in read) 
( in the y< II G P 

t New York* 7j 1340 o o 

( 6361 16 o 

in the text ; an : their tri] 

crnl V ' ' ' ! in 


the year 1776, when the Phoenix and R (hed tip the 

River, the Americans made a tren 


Ii Gaine, printer; the veteran publiiher 


Brought forward 6361 16 o 
A fine lot of ground, on which there are 
two good houfes fituate at the Corner of 
Maiden Lane & William Street in the Eaft 
ward of the City of New York, for which 
Mr B paid in 1781 to Rob 1 Deal, merchant, 
in ready money 700 guineas— equal to 1 3°^ ) l 3 4 

Negroes left behind by Mr. B 
A man — coft £65 
A woman — do 45 

A boy 2 years old 10 120 o o 

N. B. Mr B. could not bring away many 
valuable effects which are here omitted — 

£7788 9 4 


Cafe of W m Butler Efq.] 

zette and Mercury." As may be feen by reference to page 34, his place of 
bufinefs was in Hanover fquare. 


I : 

ich induce 
and I 


It a Queftion ihould be .ilk<il refp< poflibilit) of 

W 'Hi in Jul) and \ I W< 
I fa) 

1 ". Hi had . with th 1 i I had of 

r the 
I : 
this | 

ticable, fu] • 

Count dc I Grade, 

on tlic i .: r the 

( ' ;;h him th 


le Rochai 



Regular Troops, altogether 9.300 fit for Duty, 1 & thefe 
difperfed in an Extent of above 100 miles — To affemble 
them would require Days — to do it wantonly, expoie all 
the different Stations, delay the Works then carrying on 
&c &c &c 

As to the objed, Wafhington 12 miles from me 2 with 
11,000 men in a Pofition exceeding ftrong, and if beat 
finding another within a Mile & &c 3 fuch an attack not 
juftifiable with five times the force I could, after taking 
care of thefe important Stations, ("pare. For of 9.300 it 
was in formal Council of Generals Kniphaufen 4 Robertfon' 

1 " Had my correfpondence been produced, it would have appeared from 
it, and the returns accompanying it, that inftead of feventeen, twenty, nay, 
twenty-four thoufand men, which it has been reported I had at New York 
(after the very ample reinforcements, as the Minifter acknowledges, which I 
had fent to the fouthward), I had not 1 2,000 effectives, and of thefe not 
above 9300 fit for duty, regulars and Provincials." — Sir Henry Clinton's 
Narrative, 1783, p. 12. 

'-' The head quarters of General Wafhington were " near Dobbs's Ferry," 
although the encampments of the allied armies extended to the eaftward as 
far as the White Plains. 

:; It is probable "the Hills" in North Caftle — to which General Wafhing- 
ton had fallen back in the fall of 1776, after the battle of the White Plains 
— is the pofition here referred to. 

4 General Knyphaufen commanded the Heflian troops in America. He 
retired to Pruffia at the clofe of the war, and died at Berlin, in June, 1789, 
aged 59 years. 

5 General James Robertfon was appointed major of the firft battalion of the 
fortieth regiment, in December, 1755; and in May, 1758, deputy quarter- 
mafter-general in America. He was prefent at the liege of Louifbourg, in 
1758; was appointed lieutenant-colonel, July 8, 1758; accompanied Gen- 
eral Amheift up to the northern frontiers, in 1759, as quartermaiter-genera] ; 

and Birch agreed that I could nor pafs beyond the Harlem, 
with any probability of remaining a t< \\ days, without I 
l< v oi K< gular Trooj \ s that th< fi 

P uld not be trailed to Militia. B) which ir app 

that I had for forward n of Reg- 

ular Troop-. B .' I an own that it I had had tour 

times that numbi r I would nor have marched out to attack 
VS . \':i!\ fo i in a meafure 

Ma Gun Boats & For we had 

not a ii; r. 1 in them, ignorant w 1 

that the Frent ii Fit et n this, 1 

I dail) reini t from 1 ( afa- 


i i 


1 1 

i ;, i 


I the jun< 
beau and i \ 

\dmii ' with fix ll 


peak ;' by the arrival of which, if in any time, and the 
Naval Force that would accompany them, I might attempt 
a Move againft Waihington with advantage, by deitroying 
his Bridges on Crotees, 2 and place myfelf on his communi- 
cations with North Caftle 3 — You know my place — nor was 
this the only objed. You know what my views were 
about the French Fleet at Rhode Ifland, and, if reinforced 
either from Cheafapeak or England, what I fhould at- 
tempt whenever the Admiral would mafk the Harbour ; 
for I afked nothing more of the Fleet. 

As to the reconnoitring party of the 5th July you know 
how it ended. 4 In the fituation I was, I could not have 
followed it without rifting a general Action with the Garri- 
fon of Kingfbridge only, for I had not time to bring up 

twenty-fourth of September, 1781. — Vide Sir Henry Clinton's Narrative, 
1783, p. 1 1 ; and Sir Henry Clinton's Letter to General Cornwallis, Sep- 
tember 6, 1781. 

1 " Thinking that he [Lord Cornwallis) might well fpare three thoufand 
I defired he would keep all that were neceflary for a refpeclable defenfive, 
and defultory water movements, and fend me of three thoufand men all he 
could" — Sir Henry Clinton's Narrative, 1783, p. 21. See alio Sir Henry's 
Letter to Lord Cornwallis, June 15, 1781. 

2 " Croton River." 

3 North Caftle, a town in Weftchefter county, north-eaft from the White 
Plains, into which the American army retreated after the battle of White 
Plains, in Oftober, 1776. — Bolton's " Hiftory of Weft Chefter County," I. 
p. 468. 

4 An account of this interefting affair can be found in General Wafhing- 
ton's letter to the Prefident of Congrefs, 6 July, 1781 ; and in General 
Washington's Diary, July 2d and 3d, 1781. 


A to the 25 th July. B) an un< M the) 

mafked our only Debouched: and while they held 
^0,000 ought nor to have tried to I it: bur fuppo£ 

ing I had determined to pafs the Harlem, could I do it 
Ik tore Bridg - thrown over"? tor to land in B 

would fubjeft myfelf to be beat in detail ; bur could [have 
poffi H' il th< II I ordam in foi .I i died m\ 

Debouched, to attack Wafliington in hi- pofition ol \ . - 
entii I I >ufi ( whi< h you have feen ) do you think th . I 
could be juftified ii - ;nu r him with double his num- 

ber in fuch a pofition, whei >uld not be decifive, 

and when defeat would i much fo$ nor after that 

Council oi W ould it be fuppofed I would ever leave 
thefi N ms with much lei ''.000/ The only chance 

I < \< r had of ai \ pt upon an) part oi W . 
\ nj mufl have been .1 partial ad ion, with one or two of 
his columns .u\\ an K \\ In n I (hould be 

reinforce d. 

Tin (o rman n I on tin 11 A • :* on the 

. N. ^ . 

Valentine, on 1 
know m " \ 
W eft« hefl , N. Y. — Bolton's " H " II., 

1 " A fleet ol [ S troops, 



17 th Wafhington foraged within fix Miles of me — I ex- 
pected him again about the 19 th or 20 th and you know 
I was prepared to try any experiment that might offer. 
The Troops were aflembled, the materials for Bridges on 
the ground, and all would have been ready to move over 
Harlem the 19 th . I confulted with Gen 1 Kniphaufen what 
we fhould do — He feemed I confefs to think that " Le jeu 
ne valoit pas la chandelle." But I was defirous with 
7000 men to try an experiment, as I was perfuaded I could 
do it with fome fecurity with three Bridges over the Har- 
lem, if it was attempted before Wafhington came too near 
me all was prepared but the Enemy retired the 19 th &c 
&c &c' 

I mention thefe circumftances not becaufe I can fuppofe 
any Military man of common fenfe or knowledge of my 
force, and that of the Enemy or the ground between us, 
would have fuppofed it poffible for me to have attempted 
anything, but becaufe I know there is a fet of difcontented 
animals here, fome of them Military that are determined to 
critifize all I do — You may not probably think it neceflary 
to fay a fyllable on the fubjeft, but fhould that be lb, thefe 
are my Opinions. I could name 1000 more the above 
are fome of the Chief. 

As to following W when he went to the South- 

1 " About noon, His Excellency General Wafhington left the army, fet- 
ting his face towards his native State, in full confidence, to ufe his own words, 
'with a common bleffing,' of capturing Lord Cornwallis and his army." — 
Heath's Memoirs, Augiifi 19, 1781. 


ward, my Letter of thi - S ptember to Lord Cornwallis 1 
proves, how abfurd that would have been; by that I bound 
myfelf ro reinforce his Lordihip b\ e\ ery means in m\ power, 
a- loon as the Admiral lliould fignify to me ir could be done. 
To have landed in the Jerfeys would have taken ten days, 
by attempting an unimportant Move, I might hav< loft, the 
opportunity of mak mod important one that could 

be made. 

X. B. When M ( > . ,* S Samu< 1 I [ood 

clear of opinion would bring no more than i( 

the Line at mo \ Barras il >- a was far to the I 

General I /irginia. 

I Sir 1 lenry 

" Mr. C 

to the pofl 

died March 8, 1787, in I 

I I 
Cor'ica, who firfl power ofl 

;' the mofl diftii I I 

in the Weft Indies, where he pi 

De Grade, Imiral 

Rodney, April 12, 1782. II 

•• / Count De Graft! in France in 

appointed with the Americans in 1 78 1 ; and died in , 

I Mr. D 

among the mofl refpe&ed merchants in that 1 

\* v. ill be feen ft m G P 

( September, 1781, the admiral brought in " 

of the line." 


ward, there therefore was every probability that Mr Graves 
would beat them en detail, and even ihould they join, Sir 
Samuel Hood laid he thought they were a Match. 

Arnold went to new London, the firit of September and 
returned the 9 th1 in his abfence it was not thought poffible 
to move a man either by Sea or Land. (It is iuppoied he 
had all the Tranfports with him. But this is only con- 

1 It was not until the 2d of September that Sir Henry Clinton 2 fufpecled 
Wafhington's real dellination, when he defpatched General Benedict Arnold 
againft New London on the 4th of September. A minute account of that 
fanguinary vifit of the traitor-general to his native flate, may be found in 
"The Battles of the United States," by Henry B. Dav/fon, I., pp. 721-723. 

2 Sir Henry Clinton, K. B., was the eldeft fon of Admiral George Clinton, 
formerly governor of the colony of New York. He entered the army at an 
early age, as captain-lieutenant in the New York companies. On the lit 
November, 1751, he became lieutenant in the Coldftream Guards; on the 
6th May, 1758, captain in the lft Foot Guards; in 1762, a colonel in the 
army; and on the 28th November, 1766, colonel of the 16th regiment. 
He ferved, with great credit, in the feven years' war in Germany ; on the 
25th May, 1772, was made a major-general; and in May, 1775, arrived at 
Bolton. He was prefent when the action on Bunker's Hill was fought, and 
greatly diflinguifhed himfelf — receiving knighthood and the office of lieuten- 
ant-general in America. On the ill January, 1776, he was made general in 
America; fuffered defeat on Sullivan's Ifland, in June of that year ; was in 
the battles of Long Ifland and White Plains, and at the capture of Fort 
Washington. In 1777 he commanded on the Hudfon, and captured Forts 
Montgomery and Clinton. In Auguft, 1777, he was made lieutenant-gen- 
eral: in 1778, he fucceeded General Howe in the chief command; in June, 
1778, he fought at Monmouth; and in December of that year, was appointed 
colonel of the 84th Royal Highlanders. In April, 1779, he was appointed 
colonel of the 7th Light Dragoons ; in December, failed for Charlelton, 
which he reduced; and in 1782, returned to England — Sir Guy Carleton 
fucceeding him in the chief command. He died, December 13, 1795. 

INI) I. X . 

, Gan 

Abccl 8 

ad, Mr., 



. N 

Amhcrft, ( i 

. ■ 

( W ■ . 

Ardci . 

. i ", 

ial, The, 

Atlantic Garden, 

.1 I I, ~. 

Auchmuty, R »bcrt N., 

Auchmuty, Rev. Samuel. 

.i. ' \\ liam, 1 20. 


1 54* 



. I 

: 2 I . 

41. '4-. 



• '45- 




Bowen, Colonel, 79. 

Bowling Green, 13, 48. 

Bovvne & Rickman, 34. 

Braddock, General E., ill. 

Bradltreet, Colonel John, 53. 

Brandywine, Battle of the, 86. 

Brafher, Captain x^braham, 71, 92. 

Bratt, Anthony, 173. 

Breefe & Huffman, 34. 

Breevort, Henry, 121. 

Brick Church, 27. 

Bridewell, 149. 

Bridgewater, John, 121. 

BrinckerhofF, Dirck, 35. 

Brinckerhoff", Joris, 35. 

Briftol, R. I., 77. 

Broad Street Affair, 60. 

Broom, Samuel & Co., 34. 

Broome, Samuel, 71. 

Brower, Jeremiah, 33. 

Brown, Charles, 121. 

Brown, J., 94. 

Brown Univerfity, 76, 78. 

Brownejohn, Thomas, 122. 

Bruce, Brig.-Gen. Andrew, 161. 

Bruff, Charles Oliver, 34. 

Buchanan, Thomas, 122. 

Buchanan, Walter & Thomas & Co. 

Bull's Ferry, 1 59. 
Bull's Head, The, 31, 32. 
Bunker Hill, Battle of, 82, 88, 112 

Bunker Hill, New York City, 90. 
Burgoyne, General John, 76. 
Burling, John and Thomas, 36. 
Burns, George, 1 5. 
Burns' City Arms Tavern, 41. 
Burr, Aaron, 29, 111. 
Butler, Colonel, 173. 
Butler, William, 148, 150, 166, 168 

169, 170. 
Butter Hill Tract, 170. 
Byvanck, Mr., 3 1. 
Bvard's Mount, 90. 

Cambridge, Wafhington Co. , N. Y. , 7c. 

Campbell, Lieutenant-General, 160. 

Campbell, Daniel, 122. 

Campbell, Duncan, 122. 

Canada, 81, 86. 

Carleton, Sir Guy, 141, 142, 143, 
144, 148, 157, 160, 184. 

Carmer, Nicholas, 34. 

Carther, E., 49. 

Cartwright, Lawrence, 170. 

Caftle William, 88. 

Cato's Hotel, 124. 

Chamber of Commerce, 36. 

Chamier, Daniel, 152. 

Charlefton, S. C, 184. 

Charlotte Temple, 32. 

Cheefeman, Robert, 122. 

Chelfea, N. Y., 29. 

Chefapeake Bay, 179, 180. 

Chipman, Ward, 163. 

Cincinnati, Society of, 76. 

City Arms Tavern, 15, 16. 

City Hall, 54. 

City Hall, New, 26, 55. 
jCity Hall, Old, 19. 

Clark, Alexander, 122. 
I Clark, John, 122. 
, Clarke, John, 123. 

Clarke, Colonel Thomas, 29. 
! Clarkfon & Sebring, 35. 

Claverack, N. Y., 42. 
, Clinton, Admiral George, 184. 

Clinton, General George, 52, 83, 108, 

110, 111, 115, 1 16, 177, 184. 
, Clinton, Sir Henry, 29, 58, 87, 148, 


Clinton, James, 108. 

Cobb, Colonel, 143. 
Cockcroft, William, 123. 
Coenties Market, 35. 
, Coggefhall, James, 123. 
Colden, Lieutenant-Governor, 26, 35, 

42, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 55, 57. 
Colden MSS., 57. 
Coley, Mr., 34. 

'8 7 

C . I . . 

Colvil, ] , 34. 

L31, :-' 

( refpondence, 1 1 , 

. 57. 

Ed, I Z, 56, 


( . \ 1 : . , 20. 

I -cry, 

( ry, Lord, 

I rd, 14 1 , 1 - 

i* , John, 1 16. 


. --. 

( ! 

irtin, 25. 
I r, Martin, 

( , G 

( River, 

Cruger, II • . II tiry, 


( H 

( . I nil. 1 1 2. 

Cunnii . ( 




( nius, Fredeii It W., 

Curtenius, I lenrj K. . 

Curtcnius, [ohr I , . 


I G 

Curtenius, i 

Curtenius, Peter TheobaJ 

Cuftom Houfe, ;;. 
Cuyler, Henry, 

Daih, [ohi B 

I ) n, fohn, 1 2 1. 

I * , Caj 

Davit, Matje, 111, 112. 
Dawfon, |ohn, 

. i ^4. 
. R 

: +- 

. C int, 1 ~ _ , 
fl , Mr., 31. 

De La ' 

I ' I • . . I 
De J 

1 - 
De ] - ^ . 1 - 4 . 

N I --4. 

■ . 

:• • I I 

. 1 ^4. 

h \ ■ MS. M 
D . i ' . 1 ^4. 

1 1 
D , G rnor, 74. 


D01 , G 

D ■ . 

I ' rd, l ^4. 

w, 1 J4. 
I ' \ an Tuyl, 1 24. 



. I I ■ i . I . . 
Drow n< . M 



Drowne, Solomon, Sen., 76, 97. 
Drowne, Solomon, M. D., 76, 79, 

81, 94. 
Drowne, William, 79. 
Drummond, Lord, 72. 
Duane, James, 30. 
Duchefs of Gordon, The, 66, 72, 95, 

Duer, Judge William, 87. 
Dunlap, Mrs. John, 70. 
Durkee, Colonel, 1 15. 
Duryee, Abram, 34. 
Duyckinck, Gerardus, 35. 
Dyckman, John, 30, 124, 154. 

Fort Clinton, 184. 

Fort Conftitution, 53. 

Fort Frontenac, 53. 

Fort George, 46. 

Fort Montgomery, 108, 171, 184. 

Fort Ninety-Six, 123. 

Fort Stanwix, 53. 

Fort Wafhington, 112, 184. 

Fofter, R. I., 78. 

Fowler, John, 1 26. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 107. 

Franklin, Walter, 32. 

Fraunces, Samuel, 27, 45. 

Friends' Meeting Houfe, 20. 

Eaft Ward, 59, 176. 

Edward, The, 49. 

Elphinftone, W., 17. 

Elting, Peter, 93, 105. 

Englifh School, The, 11. 

Erneft, John, 35. 

Efopus, N. Y., 50, 52. 

Evacuation of New York, 109, 141. 

Exchange, The, 58. 

Exports to Great Britain 1700-67, 3! 

Fanning, Colonel Edmund, 125. 
Faneuil Hall, 15. 
Farquarfon, James, 32. 
Fellows's Brigade, 110. 
Fergufon, Clementina Jane, 36. 
Fire in New York, i 16. 
Firft Baptift Church, 22, 24. 
Firft Methodift Church, 22. 
Firft Prefbyterian Church, 19. 
Filh Market, 35. 
Flatbufh, L. I., 120, 128. 
Fletcher, Governor, 18. 
Flufhing, L. I., 72. 
Fly Market, The, 21. 
Folliot, George, 125. 
Forbes, Gilbert, 20, 67, 68, 74. 
Fordham, Heights of, 181. 
Foreft of Dean Tract, 171. 
Forfyth, Robert, 16. 

Gage, Gen. Thomas, 37, 44, 59, 60. 

Gaine, Hugh, 34, 83, 122, 135, 173. 

Gano, Rev. John, 24. 

Ganfevoort, Leonard, 68. 

Gatfield, Archibald, 126. 

Gautier, Andrew, 126. 

General Wafhington, The, 79. 
I George III., 118. 

George III., Statue of, 71, 80. 
.' German Reformed Church, 24. 
\ Germantown, Battle of, 86. 

Glen & Gregory, 35. 

Goelet, Mifs Catherine, 69. 

Goelet, Peter, 34, 171. 

Goelet, Phillipus, 69. 

Golden Hill, Battle of, 11, 22. 

Gofhen, N. Y., 114. 

Gofling, Leonard, 24. 

Governor's Ifland, 60. 

Graham, Lewis, 68. 

Graves, Admiral Samuel, 183, 184. 

Great Butter Hill, 171. 

Greeks, Caufe of the, 78. 

Green, William, 68. 

Greenwich, N. Y., 37, 84. 

Gregg, David, 126. 

Gregg, Cunningham & Co., 36, 126. 

Griffiths, John, 126. 

Grigg, John, l 26. 

Grim, David, 25, 1265 


Hackcnfack, V 

I 1 . N 'han, 30. 

II . --. 

I ■ 44- 

II ' . ' 
Hamilton, John, 


, 179, 181, 


, Gsu 

^ .112. 

draw, V \ ., 
hurft, W :■;.. 

I ;ii. 

'I' ;o. 


Hcrrin, M 



. 1 2~. 


I I 
1 1 

1 1 ■ ' 1 i 


M nden, D 


1 1 


1 ■ '•'• ., 10-. 

1 '"• 

, Richard, Lord, 81, 

1 1 7, 140. 

. Benjamin, 
1 1 guenot Church, \ 



rn Great Britain 1 -■: 

Rev. ( . »8, 1 3 1. 

1 2. 


, N. Y., 

. M. I ».. 



Jumcl. ,111. 

. A . - 1. 

Kent. . ( 

Kcm, R.\ . |. \!., 24, 

. '.. 30. 

\«.rn, 17, 19. 

Kingfti • . N. Y., 

Kip, Mr., 20. 
K. 111* 

I (JO 


50, 51. 

Kiffick, Philip, 129. 

Kiffing Bridge, 124. 

Klyne, John, 1 29. 

Knapp, John Cogghill, 36, 129. 

Knoblock, Lieutenant-General, 147. 

Knowlton, Colonel, 112, 114. 

Knyphaufen, Genera], 178, 182. 

Laidlie, Rev. Br., 21. 

Laight, Edward, 32. 

Laight, William, 154. 

Lamb, General John, 33, 55. 

Lafher, Colonel John, 71, 92. 

Leake, John, 172. 

Leake, John & Robert, & Co., 173. 

Leake and Watts' Orphan Houfe, 17: 

Lechaclicook Lands, 173. 

Lee, General Charles, 82, 86, 87. 

Lefferts, Dirck, 173. 

Lefferts, Jacob, 156, 157, 168. 

Leffingwell, Ebenezer, 115. 

" Legion," Handbill figned 

Le Mover, Dr., 143. 

L'Enfant, Major, 9. 

Le Roy, Jacob, 33. 

Leflie, Alexander, 1 29. 

Lexington Battle, 12, 22, 54, 57, 65. 

Liberty of Confcience, 10. 

Lifpenard, Colonel, 83. 

Lilpenard, Leonard, 29. 

Little Butter Hill, 171. 

Livingfton, Mrs. Catherine, 84. 

Livingfton, Gilbert, 82. 

Livingfton, Mrs. Gilbert, 109. 

Livingfton, Henry G., 71. 

Livingfton, John, 36. 

Livingfton, Philip, 33, 67, 68. 

Livingfton, Robert R., 15, 43. 

Livingfton, Captain William, 75, 90. 

Livingfton, Governor William, 37. 

Long Ifland, Battle of, 82, 86, 106, 

179, 184. 
Lott, Andrew, 71. 
Loudon, Samuel, 36. 
Louifbourg, Siege of, 178. 

Low, Ifaac, 36, 154. 
Lowry, Thomas, 1 30. 
Loyalifts of New York, 1 1 7. 
Ludlow, Gabriel H., 154. 
Ludlow, George Duncan, 130. 
Lutheran German Church, 1 28. 
Lynch, Thomas, 130. 

McAdam, John, 72. 
McBride, Wm., 130. 
McDavitt, Mr., 34. 
McDonald, Archibald, ) 30. 
McDougal, General Alexander, 50, 

5 2 > 53. 6 5- 
McEvers, James, 35, 45. 

McLean & Treat, 35. 

McPherfon, John, 131. 

Malcolm, William, 33, 71. 

Maldrem, James, 131. 

Mallats, Dr., 116. 

Marbletown, Mafs., 113. 

Mardin, Mofes, 131. 

Marietta, O., yj, 93. 

Markoe, Captain, 83. 

Marfhall, John, 131. 

Martin, Mrs., 46. 

Martinico, 179. 

Mafon, Rev. Dr. John, 20. 

Mafon, Thomas, 131. 

Matthews, Colonel, 171. 

Matthews, David, 58, 59, 62, 67, 74. 

Mayor's Court of New York, 167, 169. 

Mendon Regiment, 79. 

Mercer, General Hugh, 111. 

Merchant's Coffee Houfe, 46, 55, 58. 

Mercier, Abraham, 36. 

Mercury, The, 85, 87. 

Mefnard, Daniel, 1 29. 

Middle Dutch Church, 21. 

Middlebrook, 86. 

Middleton, Peter, M.D., 72, 73, 89, 


Miller, Mr., 20. 
Mine Trad, 171. 
Mitchell, Charles, 72. 

1 ,1 

M awk River, i 70. 

M • . . ■ \ 

M .... 1 . 

^1 . ; ;. 

M msry, I 

\I ntg mcrj . B 

\ I 

M ir< . R •■'. . B( ■ • ::. , : ;, 131. 

M rc, Sii Henry, 2 5 , . 
^1 re, J »hn, 131. 
M ire, Mr., 

M I !'• ::i Church, 24. 
Morg m, I ihn, \I. I I 

1 i 

Morris, < 111. 

M ■ -■. V 1 .. 


\I . 

M , I , 

. 1 

. R 

Murr ;' 

Noi . 141 . 

N . ■ . v ' . 

irgh, \. '. 
New R 

New Prefbyi rian M 

. R. I . 
N .-. R , N. ^ ..70. 

Church, 20. 

N. ^ .. 42, 171. 

New 141. 

II : 

N . C .114. 

H . - _• . 

1 1. 

C N. Y., 77, 



1 . 
Dui Church, 17, 




I • 


Philli] 111. 

Phae -4. 


P (I .1 

I [ill, 21. 
eepfie, N. \ ., lz, 172. 



Pozer, Jacob, 133.. 

Prime, Benj. Young, 50-52. 

Prifon, The, 26. 

Providence, R. I., 76, jj, 78, 79, 80. 

Provofte, General, 1 70. 

Putnam, General Ifrael, 67, 63, jj, 

1 12. 
Putnam, Col. Rums, 93. 

Radclift, Wm. 85. 

Ramadge, Smith, 34. 

Randall, Thomas, 116. 

Ranelagh, The, 28. 

Rapelje, Rem, 33, 133, 154. 

Read, Col., 79. 

Reeves, Stephen, 133. 

Remfen, George, 133. 

Remfen, Henry, Jr., & Co., 34. 

Rhinebeck, N. Y., 85. 

Rhinelander, Frederic, 133, 135. 

Rhode Ifland Medical Society, 78. 

Richmond Hill, 29. 

Ritzema, Rudolphus, 65, 71. 

Rivington, James, 34, 83. 

Roberts, John, 133. 

Robertfon, Gen. James, 29, 150, 154. 

155, 178. 
Robinfon, Beverly, 43. 
Rochambeau, Count de, 177, 179. 
Rockland County, N. Y., 171. 
Rogers, James, 133. 
Rogers, Rev. Dr. 18, 126. 
Roome, John, 92. 
Rofe Hill, 30. 
Roofevelt, Mrs. Elbert, 70. 
Roofevelt, Capt. John, 75. 
Roofevelt, Nicholas, 71. 
Rofe, The, 173, 174. 
Roxbury, Mafs., 79. 
Ruffell, Thomas, 80. 
Rutgers, Anthony, Jr., 24. 
Rutgers, Henry, 31. 
Rutgers' Hill, 24. 
Rutherford, Mr., 1 16. 
Rutledge, Edward, 107. 

Sachandaga River, 172. 
Sachandaga Tract, 172. 
Samfon, Crew of The, 11. 
Schuyler, General Philip, 70, 76, 82, 

Scorfield, Thomas, 134. 

Scott, John Morin, 29, 37, 63, 84. 

Scott, William, 1 34. 

Sears, Ifaac, 33, 55. 

Seaton, Wm. & Co., 36. 

Second War with Great Britain, 54. 

Shamburg, Adam, 1 34. 

Sharpe, Richard, 154. 

Shaw, Charles, 1 54. 

Shaw, John, 134. 

Sherbrooke, Miles, 154. 

Sheriff of New York County, 54. 

Shirley, Gen., 86. 

Short Hills, N. J., 86. 

Shyter, Enfign, 146. 

Smith, John, 134. 

Smith, Melandon, 20, 37. 

Smith, Thomas, 134. 

Smith, William S., 141. 

Smith, Hon. William, 21, 37,63, 168. 

Smith, Mr., 83. 

Smythe, John, 1 55. 

Snell, John, 134. 

" Son of Liberty," Handbill, 50. 

Sons of America, 42. 

Sons of Liberty, 42, 63. 

Spencer, General jofeph, 111. 

Spring, Rev. Gardiner, D. D., 27. 

Staat, Capt., 66. 

Stamps not to be uled, 43. 

Stamp Aft Riot, 16, 141. 

St. Chriftopher's, W. I., 183. 

Steele, Mrs., 17. 

Stevens, John, 43. 

Stewart, A. T. & Co., 28. 

Stewart, James, 135. 

Stirling, Lord, 86, 87, 92. 

St. John, N. B., 124. 

St. Peter's Church, 27. 

St. Paul's Church, 116. 



St. Paul's Chape', z J. 

Stout, Benjamin, 1 55. 

Stuyvei t, G .rdus, 30. 

Stuyvefant, N 

Stuyvcfant, Peter, 1 ^4. 

Stu\ ;o. 

St. ^ n ent's, W. I.. 

Sugar II.,- (Lh 

Sugar II (Corl 

Sullivan, General Jol . 106. 

Sullivan's I Hand, 

Sufquehannah River, 

Swamp Lutheran Church, z~. 

1 - - . I ' .Ml'. 

I r, W illct, 1 ^4. 

Ten v 

1 , G 

Thurman, I 


Tiit It, I .. 

i . - 

I . V. 

Tow l I 


[well, Tl 
Tre\ illian, I 

Trinity Church, 1 

I ■ . 1 , 

I Bay, 44. 

1 . Pa., ~~. 

Ufti< k, II . 135. 
Qftick, William, j j, 1 54 
1 .Willi •- & 1 1 

\ . 1 

Valentine's II '. 

\ : till .. ' 1 1 ufe, 

\ . 1. It 1 mily, 15. 

Van Dam, 

Vandercliff, Din . 

Vanderberg, Adam, 1 16. 

Vanduerfon, M-. 

Van I I 

Van H . '• 



\ \ .1! 


\ / 

Van Zai V 

Van Zai 




\ 1 |ames M., 




1 i 
. 141, 143, 

I I 

Wall .1 ,15. 

" Wat< I n in," 1 pied, 5 1 . 

Waterbury, < 

W aterti ■ ■ . N. V., 54. 


Watfon, Jacob, 136. 
Watts, Hon. John, 15, 30, 35. 
Watts, Major Stephen, 15. 
Way Gate, 42. 
WefTenfels, Frederick, 65. 
Welfh, Thomas, 137. 
Weffels, Gilbert, 137. 
Weftchefter, N. Y., 7 y. 
Weft Farms, N. Y., 181. 
Weatherhead, John, 137. 
White, Hon. Henry, 36, 134, 1 

White, Thomas, 137. 
Whitehouie & Reeves, 133. 
White Plains, Battle of, 178, 180, 
Wiggins, C, 17. 
Wilcocks, Captain William, 75. 
Wilkins, Jacob, 137. 


Willett, Marinus, 33, 59, 60, 71. 
Willett, Marinus, Narrative of, 5 3-6 5. 
Williams, Major, E., 162. 
Williams, William, 137. 
Williamfon, Richard, 34. 
Wilmot, Henry, 35. 
Wilfon, Alexander, 33. 
Wolfe & Bifhop, 24.' 
Wool, Jeremiah, 71. 

37, Yonkers, N. Y., 181. 

Yiirk Tavern, 17. 

Yorktown, Va., 177. 
jYorkville, N. Y., 111. 
184. Young, Hamilton, 137, 154. 

Young, John, 137. 

Zenger, John Peter, 1 1. 


Autobiography and Correfpondence 


Bolton's Hiftory of Weftchefter County. 

1 1 . 1 • . ■ ' \ 

ind Adveri 

Sir Henry C 's Nan ( 

l ( MSS. 

( Ulfter County 1 

I I rr. 


I ' 

De Voc's MS. 

Dunlaj I I 

i nd GUI's Boll G 



i , 

1 • 

t . I : 

Genera I J 

I i 

I I i , 




\ ', i i i ■ ■ • | 

Ramfay's I liftorj 

Life ai v R 

Ri\ii ton's N G cr. 

Ruttenber's Obfti N I i 

SabincV Sketches of Amei I 
Stedm the American War. 

Thompfon's Hifl land, 

\ 's < A inual. 

Watfon's A Occui N ty and State. 

W llett's Narrative as. 



References. — A. Ifland of New York. B. Fort at Powle's Hook. C. Fort at 
Bunker Hill. D. The Sound. E. King's-Bridge. F. Hell-Gate. G. Fort Wash- 
ington, together with the Lines of the Continental Army on the east fide of North 
River. H. Flatbuih. I. Governor's Ifland. K. East River. L. The Lines which 

guard the parlage from the Sound to King's-Bridge. N. Fort Constitution.